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 AHA Style Guidelines 
  
 

On This Page You'll Find the American Homebrewer's Association Approved Style Guidelines

Guide to Beer Styles
For Home Brew Beer Competitions

1. AMERICAN LAGER
1A. Light/Standard/Premium
Aroma: Little to no malt aroma. Hop aroma may range from none to light, flowery hop presence. Slight fruity aromas from yeast and hop varieties used may
exist, as well as perceptible levels of green apples due to acetaldehyde. Low levels of "cooked-corn" aroma from DMS may be present. No diacetyl.
Appearance: Very pale straw to pale gold color. White head seldom persists. Very clear.
Flavor: Crisp and dry flavor with some low levels of sweetness. Hop flavor ranges from none to low levels. Hop bitterness at low to medium level. Balance
may vary from slightly malty to slightly bitter, but is relatively close to even. High levels of carbonation may provide a slight acidity or dry "sting." No
diacetyl. No fruitiness.
Mouthfeel: Very light body from use of a high percentage of adjuncts such as rice or corn. Very well carbonated with slight carbonic bite on the tongue.
Overall Impression: Very refreshing and thirst quenching. "Light" beers will have a lower gravity and less resulting alcohol than the standard. Premium
beers tend to have fewer adjuncts or can be all-malt.
Ingredients: Two- or six-row barley with high percentage (up to 40%) of rice or corn as adjuncts.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.035-1.050
IBUs: 8-22 FG: 0.098-1.012
SRM: 2-8 ABV: 3.5-5.1%
Commercial Examples: Standard: Budweiser, Molson Golden, Kirin, Corona, Fosters; Premium: Michelob; Light: Bud Light, Miller Lite.
1B. Dark
Aroma: Little to no malt aroma. Little or no roast malt aroma since the color is usually derived artificially from the addition of dark caramel brewing syrups.
Hop aroma may range from none to light flowery hop presence. Slight fruity aromas may exist from yeast and hop varieties used. Low levels of "cooked-corn"
aroma due to DMS may be noticeable. No diacetyl.
Appearance: Deep copper to dark brown with bright clarity. Foam stand may not be long lasting.
Flavor: Crisp with some low levels of sweetness. Roasted malt flavors, very low to none; often the dark color is from dark caramel brewing syrups rather
than roasted malts. Hop flavor ranges from none to low levels. Hop bitterness at low to medium levels. No diacetyl. No fruitiness.
Mouthfeel: Light to somewhat medium body. Smooth, although a well-carbonated beer.
Overall Impression: A colored version of lighter American lagers with little or no dark malts used. Somewhat sweeter than its pale cousins with a little more
body.
Ingredients: Two- or six-row barley, corn or rice as adjuncts and potentially artificially colored with dark caramel brewing syrups.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.040-1.050
IBUs: 14-20 FG: 1.010-1.012
SRM: 10-20 ABV: 4.1-5.1%
Commercial Examples: Michelob Dark, Lowenbrau Dark, Beck's Dark, Saint Pauli Girl Dark.
1C. Classic American Pilsner
Aroma: Low to medium clean, grainy and sweet maltiness may be evident. Medium to high hop aroma, often classic noble hops. No fruitiness or diacetyl.
Some "cooked-corn" aroma due to DMS may be noticeable.
Appearance: Light to gold color. Substantial, long lasting head. Bright clarity.
Flavor: Medium to high maltiness similar to the Bohemian Pilsners but somewhat lighter due to the use of up to 30% flaked maize (corn) used as an adjunct.
Slight grainy sweetness from the use of maize with substantial offsetting hop bitterness. Medium to high hop flavor from noble hops. Medium to high hop
bitterness. No fruitiness or diacetyl.
Mouthfeel: Medium body and rich, creamy mouthfeel. Medium to high carbonation levels.
Overall Impression: A substantial Pilsner that can stand up to the classic European Pilsners, but exhibiting the native American grains and water available to
German brewers who initially brewed it in the USA. Refreshing, but with the underlying malt and hops that stand out when compared to other modern
American light lagers. The maize presents a unique grainy sweetness that is indicative of the style.
History: A version of Pilsner brewed in the USA by immigrant German brewers who brought the process and yeast with them when they settled in America.
They worked with the ingredients that were native to America to create a unique version of the original Pilsner. This style died out with Prohibition but was
resurrected as a home-brewed style by advocates of the hobby.
Comments: The classic American Pilsner was brewed both pre-Prohibition and post-Prohibition with some differences. OGs of 1.050-1.060 would have been
appropriate for pre-Prohibition beers while gravities dropped to 1.044-1.049 after Prohibition. Corresponding IBUs dropped from a pre-Prohibition level of
25-40 to 20-35 after Prohibition.
Ingredients: Six-row barley with 20% to 30% flaked maize to dilute the excessive protein levels. Native American hops such as Clusters or traditional noble
German hops. Modern Hallertau crosses (Ultra, Liberty,Crystal) are also appropriate.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.044-1.060
IBUs: 25-40 FG: 1.010-1.015
SRM: 3-6 ABV: 4.5-6%
Commercial Examples: None.
2. EUROPEAN PALE LAGER
2A. Bohemian Pilsner
Aroma: Rich with a complex malt and a spicy, floral, Saaz hop bouquet. Moderate diacetyl acceptable.
Appearance: Light gold to deep copper-gold, clear, with a dense, creamy white head.
Flavor: Rich, complex maltiness combined with pronounced soft, rounded bitterness and flavor from Saaz hops. Moderate diacetyl acceptable. Bitterness is
prominent but never harsh, and does not linger: The aftertaste is balanced between malt and hops. Clean, no fruitiness or esters.
Mouthfeel: Medium-bodied, medium carbonation.
Overall Impression: Crisp, complex and well-rounded yet refreshing.
History: First brewed in 1842, this style was the original clear, light-colored beer.
Comments: Uses Moravian malted barley and a decoction mash for rich, malt character. Saaz hops and low sulfate, low carbonate water provide a
distinctively soft, rounded hop profile.
Ingredients: Low sulfate and low carbonate water, Saaz hops, Moravian malted barley.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.044-1.056
IBUs: 35-45 FG: 1.013-1.017
SRM: 3-5 ABV: 4-5.3%
Commercial Examples: Pilsner Urquell, Gambrinus Pilsner, Budweiser Budvar, Staropramen.
2B. Northern German Pilsner
Aroma: May feature grain and distinctive, flowery, noble hops. Clean, no fruitiness or esters.
Appearance: Straw to medium gold, clear, with a creamy white head.
Flavor: Crisp, dry and bitter. Maltiness is low, although some grainy flavors and slight sweetness are acceptable. Hop bitterness dominates taste and
continues through the finish and lingers into the aftertaste. Hop flavor can range from low to high but should only be derived from German noble hops. Clean,
no fruitiness or esters.
Mouthfeel: Light to medium body, medium to high carbonation.
Overall Impression: Crisp, clean, refreshing beer that prominently features noble German hop bitterness accentuated by sulfates in the water.
History: A copy of Bohemian Pilsner adapted to brewing conditions in Northern and Central Germany.
Comments: Drier than Bohemian Pilsner with a bitterness that tends to linger more in the aftertaste due to higher attenuation and higher-sulfate water.
Ingredients: Pilsner malt, German hop varieties (especially noble varieties for taste and aroma), medium sulfate water.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.044-1.050
IBUs: 25-45 FG: 1.008-1.013
SRM: 2-4 ABV: 4.4-5.2%
Commercial Examples: Bitburger, Kulmbacher Moenchshof Pils, Jever Pils, Holsten Pils, Paulaner Premium Lager.
2C. Dortmunder Export
Aroma: Low to medium German or Czech hop aroma. Malt aroma is moderate.
Appearance: Light gold to medium gold, clear with a noticeable white head.
Flavor: Neither malt nor hops are distinctive, but both are in good balance with a touch of sweetness, providing a smooth yet crisply refreshing beer. Balance
continues through the finish and the hop bitterness lingers in aftertaste. Clean, no fruitiness or esters.
Mouthfeel: Medium body, medium carbonation.
Overall Impression: Balance is the hallmark of this style.
History: A style indigenous to the Dortmund industrial region, Export has been on the decline in Germany in recent years.
Comments: Brewed to a slightly higher starting gravity than other light lagers, providing a firm malty body and underlying maltiness to complement the
sulfate-accentuated hop bitterness.
Ingredients: High sulfate water, German or Czech hops, Pilsner malt.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.048-1.060
IBUs: 23-30 FG: 1.010-1.015
SRM: 4-6 ABV: 4.8-6.0%
Commercial Examples: DAB Export, Dortmunder Union Export, Kronen Export, Saratoga Lager.
2D. Muenchner Helles
Aroma: Grain and malt aromas predominate. May also have a very light hop aroma.
Appearance: Medium to deep gold, clear, with a creamy white head.
Flavor: Slightly sweet, malty profile. Grain and malt flavors predominate, with just enough hop bitterness to balance. Very slight hop flavor acceptable.
Finish and aftertaste remain malty. Clean, no fruitiness or esters.
Mouthfeel: Medium body, medium carbonation, smooth maltiness with no trace of astringency.
Overall Impression: Characterized by rounded maltiness without heaviness.
History: Created in Munich in 1895 at the Spaten brewery by Gabriel Sedlmayr to compete with Pilsner-style beers.
Comments: Unlike Pilsner but like its cousin, Munchner Dunkel, Helles is a malt-accentuated beer that is not overly sweet, but rather focuses on malt flavor
with underlying hop bitterness in a supporting role.
Ingredients: Moderate carbonate and sulfate water, Pilsner malt, German hop varieties.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.044-1.055
IBUs: 18-25 FG: 1.012-1.017
SRM: 3-5 ABV: 4.5-5.5%
Commercial Examples: Hacker Pschorr Munich Edelhell, Spaten Premium Lager.
3. LIGHT ALE
3A. Blond Ale
Aroma: Some fruitiness; may have low to medium hop bouquet, principally from American hop varieties. Light maltiness. Low diacetyl OK.
Appearance: Pale straw to deep gold in color. Clear to brilliant. Good head retention.
Flavor: Soft, lightly malty palate, some fruitiness and hop flavor present. Usually balanced with a light to medium bitterness, though the accent tilts towards
malt. Hop bitterness low to medium, although some versions are very restrained with hops, making the beer sweet in character. Low levels of diacetyl
acceptable.
Mouthfeel: Medium body, though lighter mouthfeel from higher carbonation may be noticed.
Overall Impression: This beer is generally balanced with light hops and malt as an introduction to alternate beer styles for the mass-market beer consumer.
History: Currently produced by (American) microbreweries and brewpubs.
Ingredients: Generally all malt.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.045-1.060
IBUs: 15-33 FG: 1.008-1.015
SRM: 2-8 ABV: 4-6%
Commercial Examples: Catamount Gold, Goose Island Blonde, Bridgeport Pintail Ale.
3B. American Wheat
Aroma: Characteristic of wheat with some graininess. Bavarian Weizens clovey and banana aromas are inappropriate. Hop aroma may be high or low but if
present will be from American hop varieties.
Appearance: Usually pale straw to gold. Dark versions approximating Dunkel Weizens are acceptable. Clarity may range from brilliant to hazy with yeast
approximating the hefe Weizen style of beer. Big, long-lasting head.
Flavor: Light graininess. Bavarian Weizenbier flavors such are banana esters and clove-like phenols are inappropriate. Hop flavor may be from low to high.
Hop bitterness low to medium. Some fruitiness from ale fermentation acceptable; however, the use of a fairly neutral American ale yeast usually results in a
clean fermentation. Little to no diacetyl.
Mouthfeel: Light to medium body. Higher carbonation is appropriate. Mouthfeel will appear lighter than actual body due to higher levels of carbonation.
Overall Impression: A light, refreshing beer that exhibits balanced hop and wheat maltiness.
Ingredients: Standard ale yeast. Often 50% wheat malt or more.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.035-1.055
IBUs: 10-30 FG: 1.008-1.015
SRM: 2-8 ABV: 3.7-5.5%
Commercial Examples: Otter Creek Summer Wheat, Anchor Wheat, Boulevard Wheat, Pyramid Hefe-Weizen.
3C. Cream Ale
Aroma: Low hop aroma may be present. Low levels of DMS acceptable. Low maltiness. Some character from the use of corn as an adjunct may be present.
Appearance: Pale straw to pale gold. Clear to brilliant. Good head retention.
Flavor: Low hop bittering. Low maltiness; however, grainy sweetness from corn may be present. Low levels of fruitiness OK. Balanced, clean fermentation.
No diacetyl.
Mouthfeel: Light body. Well carbonated. Smooth mouthfeel.
Overall Impression: A light, refreshing, thirst-quenching beer.
History: Adaptation of American light lager. Fermented as an ale, followed by cold conditioning or a blending of ale and lager beers, which reduces the
fermentation byproducts.
Ingredients: Corn or rice is often used as adjuncts.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.044-1.055
IBUs: 10-22 FG: 1.007-1.010
SRM: 2-4 ABV: 4.4-5.7%
Commercial Examples: Genesee Cream Ale, Little Kings Cream Ale.
4. BITTER AND ENGLISH PALE ALE
4A. Ordinary Bitter
Aroma: Hop aroma can range from moderate to none. Diacetyl and caramel aromas also moderate to none. Should have mild to moderate fruitiness. The best
examples have some malt aroma.
Appearance: Medium gold to medium copper-brown. May have very little head due to low carbonation.
Flavor: Medium to high bitterness. May or may not have hop flavor, diacetyl and fruitiness. Crystal malt flavor very common. Balance varies from even to
decidedly bitter, although the bitterness should not completely overpower the malt flavor.
Mouthfeel: Light to medium-light body. Carbonation low, although bottled examples can have moderate carbonation.
Overall Impression: Low gravity, low alcohol levels and low carbonation make this an easy-drinking beer.
History: Originally a draught ale served very fresh under no pressure (gravity or hand pump only) at cellar temperatures. Note that recently some British
brewers have been using American hops (e.g., Cascade), but beers made like this fit better into the American pale ale guideline.
Comments: The lightest of the bitters.
Ingredients: Pale ale malt, crystal malts, English hops, often medium sulfate water are used.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.030-1.038
IBUs: 20-40 FG: 1.008-1.013
SRM: 6-14 ABV: 3-3.8%
Commercial Examples: Henley's Brakspear Bitter, Boddington's Pub Draught, Thomas Hardy Country Bitter, Young's Bitter, Fuller's Chiswick Bitter.
4B. Special or Best Bitter
Aroma: Hop aroma can range from high to none. Diacetyl and caramel aroma moderate to none. Moderate fruitiness. The best examples have some malt
aroma.
Appearance: Medium gold to medium copper-brown. May have very little head due to low carbonation.
Flavor: Diacetyl and fruitiness moderate to none. Malt flavor apparent. Medium to high bitterness. Some crystal malt flavor and a moderate amount of hop
flavor are common. Balance varies from even to decidedly bitter, although the bitterness should not completely overpower the malt flavor.
Mouthfeel: Medium-light to medium body. Carbonation low, although bottled examples can have moderate carbonation.
Overall Impression: A flavorful, yet refreshing, session beer.
History: Originally a draught ale served very fresh under no pressure (gravity or hand pump only) at cellar temperatures. Note that recently some British
brewers have been using American hops (e.g., Cascade), but beers made like this fit better into the American pale ale guideline.
Comments: More evident malt flavor than in an ordinary bitter.
Ingredients: Pale ale malt, crystal malt, English hops, often medium sulfate water is used.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.039-1.045
IBUs: 20-45 FG: 1.009-1.014
SRM: 6-14 ABV: 3.7-4.8%
Commercial Examples: Young's Ramrod, Fuller's London Pride, Adnam's Suffolk Extra, Timothy Taylor Landlord, Shepherd Neame Masterbrew Bitter,
Goose Island Honkers Ale, Spanish Peaks Black Dog Ale, Nor'Wester Best Bitter.
4C. Strong Bitter/English Pale Ale
Aroma: Hop aroma high to none. Diacetyl and caramel aroma moderate to none. Moderate fruitiness. Malt aroma apparent.
Appearance: Copper to dark amber-brown. May have very little head.
Flavor: Malt flavors evident. Crystal malt flavor common. Hop flavor ranges from low to strong. Diacetyl and fruitiness moderate to none. Balance varies
from even to quite bitter, although malt flavor should not be completely overpowered.
Mouthfeel: Medium to medium-full body. Carbonation low, although bottled pale ales tend to have moderate carbonation. Warming from alcohol may be
noticeable, but should not be strong.
Overall Impression: A solidly flavored beer both in terms of malt and hops.
History: Originally a draught ale served very fresh under no pressure(gravity or hand pump only) at cellar temperatures. Note that recently some British
brewers have been using American hops (e.g., Cascade), but beers made like this fit better into the American pale ale guideline.
Comments: More evident malt and hop flavors than in a special or best bitter. English pale ale has long been referred to as "bottled bitter."
Ingredients: Pale ale malt, crystal malt, English hops, often medium sulfate water is used.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.046-1.065
IBUs: 30-65 FG: 1.011-1.020
SRM: 6-14 ABV: 4.4-6.2%
Commercial Examples: Fullers ESB, Bateman's XXXB, Young's Strong Export Bitter (sold in the US as Young's Special London Ale), Ushers 1824
Particular Ale, Oasis ESB, Big Time ESB, Shepherd Neame Bishop's Finger, Fullers 1845, bottled Bass Ale, Whitbread, Royal Oak, Shepherd Neame Spitfire.
5. SCOTTISH ALES
5A. Light 60/-Aroma:
Malt is evident; some examples have a low level of hop aroma. Fruitiness low to none. A very faint smoky and/or toasty/roasty characteristic
sometimes present. May have some diacetyl.
Appearance: Amber to dark brown. Draught examples often have a creamy, long-lasting head.
Flavor: Malt-dominated flavor, with subdued esters and just enough hop bitterness to prevent the beer from being cloyingly sweet. A very slight toasty, roasty
and/or chocolate-like character is sometimes present. Caramel flavor from crystal malt medium to none. May have some diacetyl.
Mouthfeel: Creamy, with low carbonation. Body is medium-light, but full for the gravity.
Overall Impression: Cleanly malty, with perhaps a faint touch of smoke and few esters.
History: More recent commercial interpretations from Scotland have begun to drift towards English bitter in terms of bitterness, balance, attenuation, esters
and dry-hopping. These guidelines don't account for these recent commercial examples which would more accurately be described as bitters. Traditionally,
these beers were dispensed via pumps, which forced air into the headspace of the cask, thus forcing the beer out. These air-powered systems are referred to as
"tall fonts." The "light" name associated with this style refers to the gravity rather than the color.
Comments: Though similar in gravity to ordinary bitter, the malt-hop balance is decidedly to the malt side. Long, cool fermentation leads to clean malt
character (which may include some faint peat or smoke character). Note that the smoky character can be due to the yeast as often as to smoked or peat-kilned
malt. Strongly smoky beers should be entered in the Smoked Beer category rather than here.
Ingredients: Scottish or English pale malt with small proportions of roasted barley, crystal or chocolate malt. English hops. Clean, relatively un-attenuative
ale yeast.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.030-1.034
IBUs: 9-15 FG: 1.010-1.013
SRM: 12-34 ABV: 2.5-3.3%
Commercial Examples: Belhaven 60/-, Caledonian 60/-, Maclay 60/- Light, Highland Dark Light (HDL).
5B. Heavy 70/-Aroma:
Malt is evident; some examples have a low level of hop aroma. Fruitiness is low to none with a mild smoky character and/or toasty/roasty aroma,
which is sometimes present. May have some diacetyl.
Appearance: Amber to dark brown; draught examples often have a creamy, long-lasting head.
Flavor: Malt-dominated flavor, with subdued esters and just enough hop bitterness to prevent the beer from being cloyingly sweet. A very slight toasty/roasty
or chocolate-like character is sometimes present. Caramel flavor from crystal malt medium to none. May have some diacetyl.
Mouthfeel: Creamy, with low carbonation. Body is medium to medium-light.
Overall Impression: Cleanly malty, with perhaps a faint touch of smoke and few esters.
History: More recent commercial interpretations from Scotland have begun to drift towards English bitter in terms of bitterness, balance, attenuation, esters
and dry-hopping. These guidelines don't account for these recent commercial examples which would more accurately be described as bitters. Traditionally,
these beers were dispensed via pumps, which forced air into the headspace of the cask, thus forcing the beer out. These air-powered systems are referred to as
"tall fonts."
Comments: Though similar in gravity to special bitter, the malt-hop balance is decidedly to the malt side. Long, cool fermentation leads to clean malt
character (which may include some faint peat or smoke character). Note that the smoky character can be due to the yeast as often as to smoked or peat-kilned
malt. Strongly smoky beers should be entered in the Smoked Beer category instead.
Ingredients: Scottish or English pale malt with small proportions of roasted barley, crystal or chocolate malt. English hops. Clean, relatively un-attenuative
ale yeast.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.034-1.040
IBUs: 10-25 FG: 1.011-1.015
SRM: 10-19 ABV: 3.2-3.9%
Commercial Examples: Orkney Raven Ale, Greenmantle Ale, Borve Heavy Ale, Waverly Ale 70/-, Highland Heavy, Belhaven 70/-, Caledonian 70/-,Maclay
70/-, McEwans 70/- (also sold as Younger's Scotch Ale and Tartan Special).
5C. Export 80/-
Aroma: Malt is evident; some examples have a low level of hop aroma. Fruitiness is low to none. A mild smoky and/or toasty/roasty character is sometimes
present. May have some diacetyl.
Appearance: Amber to dark brown. Draught examples often have a creamy, long-lasting head.
Flavor: Malt-dominated flavor, with subdued esters and just enough hop bitterness to prevent the beer from being cloyingly sweet. A very slight toasty/roasty
and/or chocolate-like character is sometimes present. Caramel flavor from crystal malt medium to none. May have some diacetyl.
Mouthfeel: Creamy, with low carbonation. Body is medium to medium-full.
Overall Impression: Cleanly malty, with perhaps a faint touch of smoke and few esters.
History: More recent commercial interpretations from Scotland have begun to drift towards English bitter in terms of bitterness, balance, attenuation, esters
and dry-hopping. These guidelines don't account for these recent commercial examples which would more accurately be described as bitters. Traditionally,
these beers were dispensed via pumps, which forced air into the headspace of the cask, thus forcing the beer out. These air-powered systems are referred to as
"tall fonts."
Comments: Though similar in gravity to strong bitter, the malt-hop balance is decidedly to the malt side. Long, cool fermentation leads to clean malt
character (which may include some faint peat or smoke character). Note that the smoky character can be due to the yeast as often as to smoked or peat-kilned
malt. Strongly smoky beers should be entered in the Smoked Beer category instead. It is important to note that while the IBUs on some of these beers can be
rather high, the low attenuation and solid maltiness results in a balance that is still even at best and more than likely towards malt.
Ingredients: Scottish or English pale malt with small proportions of roasted barley, crystal or chocolate malt. English hops. Clean, relatively un-attenuative
ale yeast.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.040-1.050
IBUs: 15-36 FG: 1.013-1.017
SRM: 10-19 ABV: 3.9 to 4.9%
Commercial Examples: Orkney Dark Island, Harviestown 80/-, Sherlock's Home Piper's Pride, Greenmantle 80/- Export, Arrol's 80/-, Highland Severe,
Younger's No. 3, McEwan's 80/- (despite the "India Pale Ale" on the label), Arrol's 80/-, Belhaven 80/- (Belhaven Scottish Ale in the US), Caledonian 80/-Export
Ale (Caledonian Amber Ale in the US), Maclay Scotch Ale, Maclay 80/- Export (Maclay 80 Shilling Export Ale in the US).
6. AMERICAN PALE ALES
6A. American Pale Ale
Aroma: Usually moderate to strong hop aroma from dry hopping or late kettle additions of American hop varieties. Citrusy hop aroma very common. Esters
vary from low to high. Diacetyl moderate to none.
Appearance: Pale golden to amber.
Flavor: Often moderate to high hop flavor. Citrusy hop flavor very common (such as from Cascades), but also other American hop variety flavors are found.
Malt flavor moderate relative to aggressive hop flavor and bitterness. Balance towards bitterness. Caramel flavor is usually restrained. Diacetyl moderate to
none.
Mouthfeel: Many are rather light, refreshing and more highly carbonated than many other styles, but body can reach medium. Carbonation borders on
effervescent in some examples.
Overall Impression: Should be refreshing.
History: An American adaptation of English pale ale.
Comments: In the past, this category also covered what is now called American amber ale. American pale ales differ from American amber ales notably by
being lighter in color, but also in having less caramel flavor and usually being balanced more towards hop bitterness.
Ingredients: Pale ale malt, typically American two-row. Light to medium crystal malts. American hops, often the citrusy ones such as Cascade, Centennial
and Columbus, but others may also be used (e.g., Brewer's Gold or Willamette). Water can vary in sulfate content, but carbonate content should be relatively
low.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.045-1.056
IBUs: 20-40 FG: 1.010-1.015
SRM: 4-11 ABV: 4.5-5.7%
Commercial Examples: Sierra Nevada Pale Ale, Summit Pale Ale, Great Lakes Burning River Pale Ale.
6B. American Amber Ale
Aroma: Often a mild to strong hop aroma from dry hopping or late kettle additions of American hop varieties. Some caramel aroma common. Esters vary
from low to high. Diacetyl medium-high to none.
Appearance: Light copper to light brown.
Flavor: Moderate to high hop flavor from American hop varieties. Malt/bitterness balance can be on either side of even and is more likely to be on the malt
side, but usually not too far from center. Caramel flavor is moderate to strong. Diacetyl medium-high to none.
Mouthfeel: Body is medium to medium-full. Carbonation typically moderate.
Overall Impression: Caramel usually balances the bitterness.
History: Called West Coast amber ales by some authors, this sub-category was spun-off from the American pale ale style.
Comments: In the past, this category used to be part of American pale ale. American amber ales differ from American pale ales not only by being darker in
color, but also in having more caramel flavor and usually being balanced more evenly even between malt and bitterness.
Ingredients: Pale ale malt, typically American two-row. Medium to dark crystal malts. American hops, such as Cascade, Centennial, Brewer's Gold,
Columbus and Willamette, but others may also be used. Water can vary in sulfate and carbonate content.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.045-1.056
IBUs: 20-40 FG: 1.010-1.015
SRM: 11-18 ABV: 4.5-5.7%
Commercial Examples: Big Time Atlas Amber, Bell's Amber, Mendocino Red Tail Ale, Rhino Chaser's American Amber Ale, St. Rogue Red Ale, North
Coast Red Seal Ale.
6C. California Common BeerAroma: May have a pronounced woody or rustic hop aroma (as from Northern Brewer, for example). Restrained fruitiness. May have a moderate toasted
malt aroma. Diacetyl low to none.
Appearance: Dark gold to copper to medium amber.
Flavor: Malty, balanced with a pronounced hop bitterness. Rustic/woody (e.g., Northern Brewer) hop flavor medium to none. May have a toasted (not
roasted) malt flavor. Balance is generally about even between malt and hops. Diacetyl low to none.
Mouthfeel: Medium-bodied. Medium to medium-high carbonation.
Overall Impression: A beer with solid malt and hop expression, only mildly fruity and having woody/rustic hop character.
History: American West Coast original. Large shallow fermenters are used. Originally, in the absence of handy ice or refrigeration, the locally cool ambient
temperatures of the San Francisco peninsula led to a beer that was fermented with lager yeast, but at temperatures that were at the cool end of the ale
temperature range.
Comments: Similar to American pale ale, although typically less fruity. Hop flavor/aroma is woody rather than citrusy, although a slightly citrusy character
has been noted by some in a commercial example back in the mid-1980s.
Ingredients: Pale ale malt, American hops (usually woody, such as Northern Brewer, rather than citrusy), small amounts of toasted malt and/or light
caramel/crystal malts. Lager yeast, however some strains (often with the mention of "California" in he name) work better than others at the warmer
fermentation temperatures (55 to 60oF) used (some German strains produce excessive sulfury character).Water should have relatively low sulfate and low to
moderate carbonate levels.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.044-1.055
IBUs: 35-45 FG: 1.011-1.014
SRM: 8-14 ABV: 4-5.5%
Commercial Examples: Anchor Steam, Old Dominion Victory Amber.
7. INDIA PALE ALE
Aroma: A prominent hop aroma of floral, grassy, or fruity characteristic typical. A caramel-like or toasty malt presence may also be noted, but may be at a
low level. Fruitiness, either from esters or hops, may also be detected.
Appearance: Color ranges from medium gold to deep copper, with English versions often darker than American ones. Should be clear, although some haze at
cold temperatures is acceptable.
Flavor: Hop flavor is medium to high, with an assertive hop bitterness. Malt flavor should be low to medium, but should be sufficient to support the hop
aspect. Despite the substantial hop character typical of these beers, sufficient malt flavor, body and complexity to support the hops will provide the best
balance. Very low levels of diacetyl are acceptable, and fruitiness from the fermentation or hops should add to the overall complexity. Some alcohol warming
may be sensed in stronger versions.
Mouthfeel: Smooth, medium-bodied mouthfeel without astringency, although it has moderate carbonation combine to render an overall dry sensation in the
presence of malt sweetness.
Overall Impression: A decidedly hoppy, moderately strong pale ale.
History: Brewed to survive the voyage from England to India. The temperature extremes and rolling of the seas resulted in a highly attenuated beer upon
arrival.
Comments: A pale ale that was brewed to an increased gravity and hop rate.
Ingredients: Pale ale malt (well-modified and suitable for single-temperature infusion mashing); English hops were used in the original versions, but
American hop varieties have found a place in many modern interpretations. Refined sugar may have been used in some versions also. High sulfate and low
carbonate water is essential to achieving a pleasant hop bitterness.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.050-1.075
IBUs: 40-60+ FG: 1.012- 1.016
SRM: 8-14 ABV: 5-7.8%
Commercial Examples: Anchor Liberty Ale, Sierra Nevada Celebration Ale, Brooklyn East India Pale Ale, Tupper's Hop Pocket, Great Lakes Commodore
Perry IPA, Samuel Smith's India Ale, Fuller's IPA, Highfalls IPA, Victory Hopdevil, Three Floyds Alpha King.
8. KOELSCH AND ALTBIER
8A. Koelsch-Style Ale
Aroma: Light hop aroma, German noble or Czech Saaz hops, giving a light fruitiness. Maltiness none to low. No diacetyl, as this is a lagered beer resulting
in a clean finish with just a hint of fruitiness from primary fermentation at ale temperatures. Low sulfur aroma, similar to that of pale continental lagers, is
acceptable, particularly in a young Koelsch.
Appearance: Very pale to light gold. Very clear/brilliant. White head lingers as Belgian lace on the sides of the glass.
Flavor: Soft, rounded palate; light hop fruitiness and a delicate dryness to slight sweetness in the finish. Clean fermentation with just a little residual
fruitiness from ale fermentation temperatures. No diacetyl. Medium-low bitterness. Balanced toward bitterness but malt character should not be completely
overshadowed.
Mouthfeel: Light side of medium body. Medium carbonation. Smooth, crisp mouthfeel.
Overall Impression: A delicately balanced beer with just a hint of flavor/aroma hops and fruitiness that finishes dry to slightly sweet with a crisply refreshing
bitterness over a base of smooth, rounded Pils malt flavor.
History: As an appellation, the Koelsch name can only be used for beers brewed in Koeln (Cologne), Germany, where it is a native style.
Comments: Brewed at ale temperatures, then cold conditioned to reduce fermentation byproducts.
Ingredients: European hops only. Pils malt; small amounts of wheat may be used (<25%).
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.040-1.048
IBUs: 16-30 FG: 1.008-1.013
SRM: 3.5-5 ABV: 4.0-5.0%
Commercial Examples: Available in Koeln only: Malzmuehle, Hellers, PJFrueh, Paeffgen, Sion, Kueppers. In the US: Hollywood Blonde.
8B. Duesseldorf Altbier
Aroma: Munich malt aroma, with a restrained fruitiness. Hop aroma may vary from low to moderate.
Appearance: Orange-copper to brown color, with brilliant clarity. Thick, persistent head.
Flavor: Assertively bitter, with intense Munich malt-derived flavor to support. Fruity esters should be restrained; some chocolatey notes are often present.
Hop flavor should be low to medium.
Mouthfeel: Medium-bodied, with moderate carbonation. Some commercial examples have a dry finish resulting from a combination of high bitterness, higher
attenuation, and moderate sulfate in the water.
Overall Impression: Bitterness is very high, especially in relation to the (moderate) gravity. Munich malt character lends balance, resulting in a bittersweet
character. Very smooth from fermentation at the lower end of the temperature range for ales, followed by a period of lagering.
History/Comments: A very bitter beer with a pronounced Munich malt character. Ingredients, fermentation at low temperature (for an ale), and a lagering
period combine to lend a cleaner palate than for most ales. Predates the isolation of bottom fermenting yeast strains, though it approximates many
characteristics of lager beers. Many Northern German Altbiers are lagers.
Ingredients: German Munich malt is essential to obtaining the necessary depth of malt character. Hops are traditionally Spalt, though other German varieties
are often used.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.040-1.055
IBUs: 40-60 FG: 1.012- 1.019
SRM: 11-19 ABV: 5-5.5%
Commercial Examples: Zum Uerige, Zum Schluessel, Im Fuchschen, Widmer Ur-Alt, Schumacher.
8C. Northern German Altbier
Aroma: Little aroma; malt should dominate to the extent that any aroma is discernible.
Appearance: Copper to brown color; very clear. Good head retention.
Flavor: Assertively bitter yet balanced. Munich malt-derived flavor, along with a chocolate-like malt aspect, supports the bitterness. Esters are restrained, and
hop flavor should be low to medium.
Mouthfeel: Medium body, with an overall balanced impression.
Overall Impression: A very clean and relatively bitter beer, balanced by Munich malt character. Less intense than the Duesseldorf version of Altbier.
Comments: Most Altbiers produced outside of Duesseldorf are of the Northern German style. Many are simply moderately bitter brown lagers.
Ingredients: Typically made with a Pils base and colored with roasted malt or some dark color syrup. May include Munich malt. Hops are traditionally
Spalt, though other German varieties may be substituted.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.040-1.055
IBUs: 25-40 FG: 1.012-1.019
SRM: 11-19 ABV: 5-5.5%
Commercial Examples: DAB Dark, Diebels Alt, Alaskan Amber, Grolsch Autumn Amber.
9. GERMAN AMBER LAGER
9A. Oktoberfest/Maerzen
Aroma: German (Vienna or Munich) malt aroma. A light toasted malt aroma may be present. No fruitiness, diacetyl, or hop aroma.
Appearance: Dark gold to reddish amber color. Bright clarity, with solid foam stand.
Flavor: Distinctive and complex maltiness may include a toasted aspect. Hop bitterness is moderate, and hop flavor is low to none. Balance is toward malt,
though the finish is not sweet.
Mouthfeel: Medium body, with a creamy texture and medium carbonation.
Overall Impression: Smooth and rather rich, with a depth of malt character. This is one of the classic malty styles, with a maltiness that is often described as
soft, complex, and elegant but never cloying.
History: Origin is credited to Gabriel Sedlmyer, based on an adaptation of the Vienna style developed by Anton Dreher around 1840, shortly after lager yeast
was first isolated. Typically brewed in the spring, signaling the end of the traditional brewing season and stored in cold caves or cellars during the warm
summer months. Served in autumn amidst traditional celebrations.
Ingredients: German Vienna malt (slightly lighter than Munich malt) should be the backbone (if not entirety) of the grain bill, with some Munich malt and
possibly some crystal malt. All malt should derive from the finest quality two-row barley. Continental hops, especially noble varieties, are most authentic.
Somewhat alkaline water (up to 300 PPM), with significant carbonate content is welcome.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.050-1.064
IBUs: 20-30 FG: 1.012-1.016
SRM: 7-14 ABV: 4.8-6.5%
Commercial Examples: Spaten Ur-Maerzen, Ayinger Oktoberfest-Maerzen, Paulaner Oktoberfest, Wuerzburger Oktoberfest, Hacker-Pschorr Oktoberfest.
9B. Vienna Lager
Aroma: Dark German (Vienna or Munich) malt aroma. A light toasted malt aroma may be present. Similar, though less intense than Oktoberfest.
Appearance: Reddish amber to light brown color. Bright clarity and solid foam stand.
Flavor: Soft, elegant malt complexity is in the forefront, with a firm enough hop presence to provide a balanced finish. Some toasted character
from the use of Vienna malt.
Mouthfeel: Light to medium body, with a gentle creaminess. Medium carbonation.
Overall Impression: Characterized by soft, elegant maltiness that dries out in the finish to avoid becoming overly sweet.
History/Comments: The original amber lager developed by Anton Dreher shortly after the isolation of lager yeast. Nearly extinct in its area of origin. The
style owes much of its character to the method of malting (Vienna malt). Lighter overall than Oktoberfest, yet still decidedly balanced toward malt.
Ingredients: Vienna malt provides a lightly toasty and complex, melanoidin-rich malt profile. As with Oktoberfests, only the finest quality malt should be
used, along with Continental hops (preferably noble varieties). Moderately hard, carbonate-rich water.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.046-1.052
IBUs: 18-30 FG: 1.010-1.014
SRM: 8-12 ABV: 4.6-5.5%
Commercial Examples: Negra Modelo, Portland Lager, 150 Jahre, Augsburger Red, Leinenkugel Red.
10. BROWN ALE
10A. Mild
Aroma: Slight mild malt/brown malt aroma, with some fruitiness. No hop aroma.
Appearance: Medium to dark brown or mahogany color. A few light brown examples exist. May have very little head due to low carbonation.
Flavor: Malty, though not roasty, with a lightly nutty character. Flavors may include: vinous, licorice, plum or raisin, or chocolate. Usually fairly well
balanced, though some are sweetly malt-oriented.
Mouthfeel: Light to medium body. Low carbonation and relatively high residual sweetness contribute to a full mouthfeel relative to the gravity.
Overall Impression: A light-flavored, malt-accented beer that is readily suited to drinking in quantity. Refreshing, yet flavorful.
History: May have evolved as one of the elements of early porters. In modern terms, the name "mild" refers to the relative lack of hop bitterness, Originally,
the mildness may have referred to the fact that this beer was young and did not yet have the moderate sourness that aged batches had.
Ingredients: English mild/brown malt, or a combination of English pale and darker malts should comprise the grist. English hop varieties would be most
suitable, though their character is muted.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.030-1.038
IBUs: 10-20 FG: 1.008-1.013
SRM: 10-25 ABV: 2.5-4.0%
Commercial Examples: Brains Dark, Banks's Mild, Highgate Mild, Fuller's Hock, McMullin AK, Robinson's Best Mild.
10B. Northern English Brown Ale
Aroma: Restrained fruitiness; little to no hop aroma. May have a caramel aspect to the malt character.
Appearance: Dark golden to light brown color.
Flavor: Gentle to moderate sweetness, with a nutty character. Balance is nearly even, with hop flavor low to none. Some fruity esters should be present; low
diacetyl is acceptable.
Mouthfeel: medium-light to medium body, with a dry finish.
Overall Impression: Drier and more hop-oriented that southern English brown ale, with a nutty character rather than caramel.
History/Comments: English brown ales are generally split into sub-styles along geographic lines.
Ingredients: English mild ale or pale ale malt base with caramel malts. May also have scant amounts darker malts. English hop varieties are most authentic.
Moderate carbonate water.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.040-1.050
IBUs: 15-30 FG: 1.010-1.013
SRM: 12-30 ABV: 4-5.0%
Commercial Examples: Newcastle Brown Ale, Samuel Smith Nut Brown Ale, Adnams' Nut Brown Ale.
10C. Southern English Brown
Aroma: Malty and moderately fruity, with some mild malt, brown malt character common.
Appearance: Dark brown, almost opaque.
Flavor: Gentle, moderate sweetness. Malt dominates the balance, but hop bitterness is sufficient to prevent an overly sweet impression. Hop flavor is low to
non-existent. Malt flavor will be present, but sharp or roasty flavors are inappropriate.
Mouthfeel: Low to medium body, with a caramel impression.
Overall Impression: A malt-oriented version of brown ale, with a caramel, dark fruit complexity of malt flavor.
History: English brown ales are generally split into sub-styles along geographic lines.
Comments: Increasingly rare.
Ingredients: English pale ale malt as a base with a healthy proportion of caramel malts and often some darker malts. Moderate to high carbonate water would
appropriately balance the dark malt acidity. English hop varieties are most authentic, though with low flavor and bitterness almost any type could be used.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.040-1.050
IBUs: 15-24 FG: 1.011-1.014
SRM: 20-35 ABV: 3.5-5.0%
Commercial Examples: Mann's Brown Ale, Oregon Nut Brown Ale.
10D. American Brown Ale
Aroma: Hop aroma, often citrusy, is mild to strong. Esters and dark malt aspects are mild to moderate.
Appearance: Dark amber to dark brown color.
Flavor: Hop bitterness and flavor dominate the malty richness that is a characteristic of brown ales. Slightly drier than English versions, with assertive hop
presence (bitterness, flavor, and aroma).Although malt flavor plays a supporting role, some toasty malt character(or even restrained roastiness) should be
evident.
Mouthfeel: Medium body, with a dry, resiny impression contributed by the high hop bitterness.
Overall Impression: A bigger, hoppier, dryer version of brown ale, typically including the citrus-accented hop presence that is characteristic of American
varieties.
History/Comments: A strongly flavored, hoppy brown beer, originated by American home brewers.
Ingredients: Well-modified pale malt, either American or Continental, plus crystal and darker malts should complete the malt bill. American hops should be
used in generous quantity. Moderate to high carbonate water would appropriately balance the dark malt acidity.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.040-1.060
IBUs: 25-60 FG: 1.010-1.017
SRM: 15-22 ABV: 4-6.0%
Commercial Examples: Pete's Wicked Ale, Brooklyn Brown Ale, Hart's Pacific Crest Ale, Smuttynose Old Brown Dog, Il Vicino Tenderfoot Brown,
Shipyard Moose Brown.
11. ENGLISH AND SCOTTISH STRONG ALE
11A. Old Ale
Aroma: Malty, with complex fruity esters. Some oxidative notes are acceptable, akin to those found in port or sherry. Hop aromas not usually present, due to
extended age.
Appearance: Medium amber to very dark red-amber color.
Flavor: Malty and usually sweet, with abundant fruity esters. The nutty malt sweetness yields to a finish that may vary from dry to somewhat sweet. Extended
aging may contribute oxidative flavors similar to a fine old port or Madiera wine. Alcoholic strength should be evident, though not overwhelming.
Mouthfeel: Medium to full body; alcohol should contribute some warmth.
Overall Impression: An ale of significant alcoholic strength, though usually not as strong or rich as barleywine. Usually tilted toward a sweeter, more malty
balance.
History/Comments: Often regarded as winter warmers, and often released as seasonal beers.
Ingredients: Generous quantities of well-modified pale malt (generally English in origin, though not necessarily so), along with judicious quantities of
caramel malts. Some darker examples suggest that dark malts may be appropriate, though sparingly so as to avoid roast character. Adjuncts (such as molasses
or dark sugar) may also be utilized. Hop variety is not as important, as the relative balance and aging process negate much of the varietal character.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.060-1.090+
IBUs: 30-60 FG: 1.015-1.022+
SRM: 12-16 ABV: 6-9+%
Commercial Examples: Theakston Old Peculier, Young's Winter Warmer, Marston Owd Roger.
11B. Strong Scotch Ale (Wee Heavy)
Aroma: Deeply malty, with caramel apparent. Roasty or even smoky secondary aromas may also be present, adding complexity. Moderate diacetyl character
is also acceptable.
Appearance: Dark amber to dark brown color, often with ruby highlights.
Flavor: Intensely malty with kettle caramelization apparent. Hint of roasted malt or smoky flavor may be present, as may some buttery diacetyl or nutty
character. Hop flavors are low, so malt impression should be dominant.
Mouthfeel: Full-bodied, with a thick, chewy viscosity. Alcoholic warmth should also be present.
Overall Impression: Rich and malty, reminiscent of a dessert. Complex secondary malt flavors prevent a one-dimensional impression.
History/Comments: Fermented at cooler temperatures than most ales, and with lower hopping rates, resulting in clean, intense malt flavors. Well suited to
the region of origin, with abundant malt and cool fermentation and aging temperature. Hops, which are not native to Scotland and formerly expensive to
import, were kept to a minimum.
Ingredients: Well-modified pale malt, with some crystal and perhaps a dash of darker malt or even roasted barley. A small proportion of smoked malt may
add depth, though smoky character may also originate from the yeast. Hop presence is minimal, although English varieties are most authentic. Low-to-medium
sulfate and medium carbonate/bicarbonate water is most appropriate.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.072-1.088+
IBUs: 20-40 FG: 1.019-1.025+
SRM: 10-47 ABV: 6.9-8.5+
Commercial Examples: Traquair House, MacAndrew's Scotch Ale, McEwan's Scotch Ale, Belhaven Wee Heavy, Scotch du Silly, Vermont Pub and Brewery
Wee Heavy.
12. BARLEYWINE AND IMPERIAL STOUT
12A. English-style Barleywine
Aroma: Moderate to intense fruitiness; presence of hops (English varieties) may range from mild to assertive. A caramel-like aroma is often present.
Appearance: Color may range from rich gold to very dark amber or even brown. Often has ruby highlights. May have low head retention.
Flavor: Fruity, with a great intensity of malt. Hop bitterness may range from just enough for balance to a firm presence; balance therefore ranges from malty
to bitter. Some oxidative flavors may be present, and alcohol should be evident.
Mouthfeel: Full-bodied, with a slick, viscous texture. Gentle smooth warmth from alcohol should be present.
Overall Impression: The richest and strongest of the English Ales.
History/Comments: Usually the strongest ale offered by a brewery, and often vintage-dated. Normally aged significantly prior to release. Often associated
with the winter or holiday season. Although a hoppy beer, the English Barleywine places less emphasis on hop character than the American Barleywine and
features English hops.
Ingredients: Well-modified pale malt should form the backbone of the grist, with judicious amounts of caramel malts. Dark malts should be used with great
restraint, if at all, as most of the color arises from a lengthy boil. English hops such as Northdown, Target, East Kent Goldings and Fuggles.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.080-1.120+
IBUs: 50-100 FG: 1.020-1.030+
SRM: 10-22 ABV: 8-12+%
Commercial Examples: Anchor Old Foghorn, Youngs Old Nick, Fullers Golden Pride.
12B. American-Style Barleywine
Aroma: Moderate to intense fruitiness; presence of hops (typical American varieties) may range from moderate to dominant. A caramel-like aroma is often
present.
Appearance: Color may range from rich gold to very dark amber or even brown. Often has ruby highlights. May have low head retention.
Flavor: Fruity, with a great intensity of malt. Hop bitterness may range from just enough for balance to a firm, resiny dominance; balance therefore ranges
from slightly malty to intensely bitter. Some oxidative flavors maybe present, and alcohol should be evident.
Mouthfeel: Full-bodied, with a slick, viscous texture. Gentle smooth warmth from alcohol should be present.
Overall Impression: A well-hopped American interpretation of the richest and strongest of the English ales.
History/Comments: Usually the strongest ale offered by a brewery, and often vintage-dated. Normally aged significantly prior to release. Often associated
with the winter or holiday season. The American version of the Barleywine tends to have a greater emphasis on hop bitterness, flavor and aroma than the
English Barleywine, featuring American hop varieties.
Ingredients: Well-modified pale malt should form the backbone of the grist, with judicious amounts of caramel malts. Dark malts should be used with great
restraint, if at all, as most of the color arises from a lengthy boil. American hops such as Cascades and Centennial.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.080-1.120+
IBUs: 50-100 FG: 1.020-1.030+
SRM: 10-22 ABV: 8-12+%
Commercial Examples: Sierra Nevada Bigfoot, Rogue Old Crustacean, Victory Old Horizontal.
12C. Russian Imperial Stout
Aroma: Fruity esters, reminiscent of dark fruit, merged with intense roastiness and maltiness. Hop aroma is usually also present.
Appearance: Very dark reddish-black color; opaque.
Flavor: Intensely fruity and malty, backed up by balancing roastiness and prominent hop bitterness and flavor. A "burnt currant" character may be present,
along with a suggestion of cocoa or strong coffee. Alcoholic strength should be evident, along with a deep, complex malt flavor. The finish can vary from
relatively dry to moderately sweet, usually with some lingering roastiness and warming character.
Mouthfeel: Very full-bodied and rich, with intense flavors and perceptible alcohol presence. Carbonation is relatively low.
Overall Impression: An intensely flavorful beer. Roasty, fruity, and bittersweet, with a notable alcohol presence. Dark fruit melds with roasty, burnt, almost
tar-like sensations.
History: Said to be popular with the Russian Imperial Court.
Comments: Brewed to high gravity and hopping level in England for export to the Baltic States and Russia.
Ingredients: Well-modified pale malt, with generous quantities of roasted grain. Flavor and aroma hops should include English varieties for authenticity.
Alkaline water would balance the abundance of acidic roasted grain in the grist.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.075-1.095+
IBUs: 50-90+ FG: 1.018-1.030+
SRM: 20-40 ABV: 8-12+%
Commercial Examples: Samuel Smith Imperial Stout, Courage Imperial Stout, Brooklyn Black Chocolate Stout, Rogue Imperial Stout, North Coast Old
Rasputin Imperial Stout, Victory Storm King.
13. EUROPEAN DARK LAGER
13A. Munich Dunkel
Aroma: Munich malt aroma, with sweetish notes or hints of chocolate and toffee also acceptable. No fruity esters or diacetyl should be detected, but slight
hop aroma is acceptable.
Appearance: Medium amber to dark brown, often with a red or garnet tint. Creamy light tan head, clear.
Flavor: Dominated by the rich and complex flavor of Munich malt. May be slightly sweet from residual extract, but should not have a pronounced crystal or
caramel malt flavor. Burnt or bitter flavors from roasted malts should not be perceived. Hop bitterness is low but perceptible, with the balance tipped firmly
towards maltiness. Hop flavor should be at the very edge of perception if perceived at all. Aftertaste remains malty, although the hop bitterness may become
more apparent in this last phase of flavor perception.
Mouthfeel: Medium to medium-full mouthfeel, providing a firm body without being heavy.
Overall Impression: Characterized by depth and complexity of Munich malt and the accompanying melanoidins.
History: The classic lager style of Munich which developed as a malt-accented beer in part due to the moderately carbonate water.
Comments: Versions from the Kulmbach region of Franconia are brewed from a bit higher gravity with a more intense flavor profile.
Ingredients: Grist is primarily made up of German Munich malts, up to 100% in some cases or supplemented with German Pilsner malt. Small amounts of
crystal malt can add to the malt complexity but should not compete with the Munich malt. Very slight additions of roasted malts may be used to improve color
but should not add any flavor. Noble German hop varieties and German lager yeast strains should be used. Moderately carbonate water. Often decoction
mashed to showcase the malt flavors.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.046-1.058
IBUs: 20-28 FG: 1.012-1.017
SRM: 12-28 ABV: 4.3-5.6%
Commercial Examples: Ayinger Altbairisch Dunkel, Hacker-Pschorr Alt Munich Dark, Paulaner Alt Muenchner Dunkel, Tabernash Munich Dark, Weeping
Radish Dunkel.
13B. Schwarzbier (Black Beer)
Aroma: Primarily malty, with low aromatic sweetness and/or hints of roast malt often apparent. Low hop aroma may be perceived. No fruity esters or
diacetyl.
Flavor: Rich, full malt flavor balanced by moderate bitterness from both hops and roasted malt, providing a bitter-chocolate palate without being particularly
dry. Low hop flavor and some residual sweetness are acceptable. Aftertaste tends to dry out slowly and linger, featuring hop bitterness with a complementary
subtle roastiness in the background. No fruity esters or diacetyl.
Mouthfeel: Low to medium body.
Overall Impression: A beer that balances rich dark malt flavors with a perceptible bitterness from hops and roasted malts.
History: In previous centuries in Germany, drinkers sometimes sweetened the initial product with sugar, and for some time, the Koestritzer brewery produced
two versions, an original, dryer product and another version with added sucrose. The current Ur-Koestritzer product splits the difference between the two
previous versions.
Comments: In comparison with a Munich Dunkel, usually darker in color, drier on the palate and with a noticeable (but not high) roasted malt edge to balance
the malt base.
Ingredients: German Munich malt and Pilsner malts for the base, supplemented by a small amount of roasted malts for the dark color and subtle roast flavors.
Noble-type German hop varieties and a clean (preferably German) lager yeast are preferred.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.044-1.054
IBUs 25-35 FG: 1.010-1.016
SRM 20-40+ ABV: 4.2-5.4%
Commercial Examples: Kulmbacher Moenchschof Kloster Schwarz-Bier, Ur-Koestritzer Schwarzbier.
14. BOCK
14A. Traditional Bock
Aroma: Strong aroma of malt. Virtually no hop aroma. Some alcohol may be noticeable. Diacetyl or esters should be low to none.
Appearance: Deep amber to dark brown color. Lagering should provide good clarity despite the dark color. Head retention may be impaired by higher-than-average
alcohol content.
Flavor: Rich and complex maltiness is dominated by the grain and caramel flavors of Munich and Vienna malts. A touch of roasty character may be present
but is rare. No hop flavor. Hop bitterness is generally only high enough to balance the malt flavors to allow moderate sweetness in the finish.
Mouthfeel: Medium to full bodied. Low to moderate carbonation.
Overall Impression: A dark, strong, malty lager beer.
History: Can be thought of as a strong version of Munich Dunkel. A Bavarian specialty that is most closely associated with serving in winter and spring
seasons.
Comments: Decoction mashing may enhance the caramel and melanoidin flavor aspects of the malt.
Ingredients: Munich and Vienna malts, rarely any dark roasted malts, never any non-malt adjuncts. Continental European hop varieties are used, for bittering
only. Lager yeast. Water hardness can vary.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.064-1.072
IBUs: 20-35 FG: 1.013-1.020
SRM: 14- 30 ABV: 6-7.5%
Commercial Examples: Aass Bock, Hacker-Pschorr Dunkeler Bock, Dunkel Ritter Bock, Einbecker Ur-Bock.
14B. Helles Bock/Maibock
Aroma: Moderate to strong malt aroma. Hop aroma should be low to none. Aromas such as diacetyl or fruity esters should be low to none. Some alcohol
may be noticeable.
Appearance: Golden to amber in color. Lagering should provide good clarity. Head retention may be impaired by higher-than-average alcohol content.
Flavor: The rich flavor of continental European pale malts dominates. Little or no hop flavor. Hop bitterness is generally only high enough to balance the
malt flavors to allow moderate sweetness in the finish. Perception of hops may be more apparent than in darker Bocks.
Mouthfeel: Medium-bodied. Moderate carbonation.
Overall Impression: A relatively pale, strong, malty lager beer.
History: Can be thought of as a strong version of Munich Helles. The serving of Maibock is specifically associated with springtime and the month of May.
Comments: A pale type of Bock beer.
Ingredients: Pale lager malts. No non-malt adjuncts. Continental, European hops. Water hardness varies. Lager yeast.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.064-1.072
IBUs: 20-35 FG: 1.011-1.020
SRM: 4 10 ABV: 6-7.5%
Commercial Examples: Ayinger Maibock, Spaten Premium Bock, Pschorr Maerzenbock, Wuerzburger Maibock, Hacker-Pschorr Maibock, Augustiner
Hellerbock, Fieders Bock Im Stein, Forschungs St. Jacobus Bock.
14C. Doppelbock
Aroma: Intense maltiness. Virtually no hop aroma. While diacetyl or esters should be low to none, a fruity aspect to the aroma often described as prune,
plum or grape may be present due to reactions between malt, the boil, and aging. A very slight roasty aroma may be present in darker versions.
Appearance: Gold to dark brown in color. Lagering should provide good clarity. Head retention may be impaired by higher-than-average alcohol content.
Flavor: Very rich and malty, infrequently a touch of roastiness. Invariably there will be an impression of alcoholic strength, but this should be smooth and
warming rather than harsh or burning. Presence of higher alcohols (fusel oils) should be very low to none. Little to no hop flavor. Hop bitterness varies from
moderate to low but always allows malt to dominate the flavor.
Mouthfeel: Full-bodied. Low carbonation.
Overall Impression: A very strong, rich, lager beer.
History: A Bavarian specialty invented in Munich by the brothers of St. Francis of Paula. Historical versions were less well attenuated than modern
interpretations, with consequently higher sweetness and lower alcohol levels.
Comments: Most versions are dark colored and may display the caramelizing and melanoidin effect of decoction mashing, but pale versions have also been
made.
Ingredients: Pale lager malt for pale versions, Munich and Vienna malts for darker ones and occasionally a small fraction of dark-roasted(burnt) malt in
those. Continental European hops. Water hardness will vary. Lager yeast.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.073-1.120
IBUs: 20-40 FG: 1.018-1.030
SRM: 12-30 ABV: 7.5-12%
Commercial Examples: Paulaner Salvator, Ayinger Celebrator, Spaten Optimator, Tucher Bajuvator, Augustiner Maximator, EKU Kulminator "28,"
Loewenbraeu Triumphator, Hacker-Pschorr Animator, Old Dominion Dominator.
14D. Eisbock
Aroma: Dominated by malt. Definite alcohol presence. No hop aroma. No diacetyl or esters.
Appearance: Deep gold to dark brown in color. Lagering should provide good clarity. Head retention may be impaired by higher-than-average alcohol
content.
Flavor: Rich malt and concentrated alcohol. No hop flavor. Hop bitterness just balances the malt sweetness to avoid a cloying character. No diacetyl or
esters.
Mouthfeel: Full-bodied. Carbonation low.
Overall Impression: An extremely strong lager beer.
History: A Kulmbach specialty traditionally brewed by freezing a Bock or Doppelbock and removing the water ice to concentrate the flavor and alcohol
content.
Comments: The process of concentrating the alcohol content by freezing may impart significant smoothness to the flavor. The effective OG range due to the
freezing effect is 1.092-1.150.
Ingredients: Pale lager malt for pale versions, Munich and Vienna malts for darker ones and occasionally a small fraction of dark-roasted malt in those.
Continental European hops for bitterness only. Lager yeast. Water hardness will vary.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.064-1.120
IBUs: 25-50 FG: 1.023-1.035
SRM: 18-50 ABV: 8.6-14.4%
Commercial Examples: Niagara Eisbock.


15. PORTER
15A. Robust Porter
Aroma: Roast malt or grain aroma, often coffee-like or chocolate-like, should be evident. Hop aroma moderate to low. Fruity esters, and diacetyl, are
moderate to none.
Appearance: Dark brown to black color, may be garnet-like. Clarity may be difficult to discern in such a dark beer. Head retention should be moderate to
good.
Flavor: Malt flavor usually features coffee-like or chocolate-like roasty dryness. Overall flavor may finish from medium sweet to dry, depending on grist
composition, hop bittering level, and attenuation. May have a sharp character from dark roasted grains. Hop flavor varies widely. Diacetyl moderate to none.
Mouthfeel: Medium to medium-full bodied. Low to moderate carbonation.
Overall Impression: A substantial dark ale with complex roasty malt, hop and fermentation characteristics.
History: Originating in England, Porter developed as a blend of beers or gyles known as "Entire." A precursor to stout. Said to have been favored by porters
and other physical laborers.
Comments: Although a rather variable style, it may be distinguished from closely-related Stout as lacking the Stouts roasted barley character.
Ingredients: May contain several malts, prominently dark roasted malts and grains, which often include black malt. Hops are used for bittering, flavor and/or
aroma. Water must have significant carbonate hardness. Ale yeast is most common.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.050- 1.065
IBUs: 25-45 FG: 1.012-1.016
SRM: 30+ ABV: 4.8-6.0%
Commercial Examples: Sierra Nevada Porter, Anchor Porter, Great Lakes Edmund Fitzgerald Porter.
15B. Brown Porter
Aroma: Malt aroma with mild roastiness should be evident. Hop aroma may be moderate to low. Esters and diacetyl may be moderate to none.
Appearance: Medium brown to dark brown in color. Clarity and head retention should be fair to good.
Flavor: Malt flavor will include mild to moderate roastiness. Hop flavor low to none. Hop bittering will vary the balance from slightly malty to slightly
bitter. Diacetyl, and sourness or sharpness from dark grains, should be low to none.
Mouthfeel: Medium-light to medium bodied. Low to moderate carbonation.
Overall Impression: A fairly substantial dark ale with some roasty characteristics.
History: Originating in England, porter evolved from a blend of beers or gyles known as "Entire." A precursor to stout. Said to have been favored by porters
and other physical laborers.
Comments: Softer flavors, lower gravities, and usually less alcohol than robust porter. More substance and roast than brown ale. Some versions are
fermented with lager yeast. Balance tends toward malt more than hops.
Ingredients: May contain several malts, including dark roasted malts and grains. Hops are used chiefly for bitterness. Water should have significant
carbonate hardness. Ale yeast, or occasionally lager yeast, is used.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.040-1.050
IBUs: 20-30 FG: 1.008-1.014
SRM: 20-35 ABV: 3.8-5.2%
Commercial Examples: Samuel Smith Taddy Porter, Bateman Salem Porter, Shepherd Neame Original Porter, Yuengling Porter, Fuller's London Porter.
16. STOUT
16A. Dry Stout
Aroma: Coffee-like roasted barley and roasted malt aromas are prominent. Esters low to medium. Diacetyl moderate to none. Hop aroma low to none.
Appearance: Deep garnet to black in color. Clarity is irrelevant in such a dark beer. A thick, creamy, long-lasting head is characteristic.
Flavor: Moderate acidity/sourness and sharpness from roasted grains, and medium to high hop bitterness, provide a dry finish. Balancing factors may include
some creaminess, moderate to low fruitiness, and medium to no diacetyl.
Mouthfeel: Medium-light to medium body, with a creamy character. Low to moderate carbonation.
Overall Impression: A very dark, roasty, bitter, creamy ale.
History: The style evolved from attempts to capitalize on the success of London porters, but originally reflected a fuller, creamier, more "stout" body.
Modern versions are brewed from a lower OG and no longer reflect a fuller body than porters.
Comments: This is the draught version of what is otherwise known as Irish stout. Bottled versions are typically brewed from a significantly higher OG and
may be considered foreign extra stouts.
Ingredients: The dryness comes from the use of roasted unmalted barley in addition to pale malt, moderate to high hop bitterness, and good attenuation.
Flaked unmalted barley may also be used to add a creaminess. A small percentage of soured beer is sometimes added for complexity. Water should have high
carbonate hardness.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.035-1.050
IBUs: 30-50 FG: 1.007-1.011
SRM: 35+ ABV: 3.2-5.5%
Commercial Examples: Guinness Draught Stout (also canned), Murphy's Stout, Beamish Stout.
16B. Sweet Stout
Aroma: Mild roasted grain aromas. Fruitiness can be low to high. Diacetyl medium to none. Hop aroma low to none.
Appearance: Very dark amber to black in color, which makes clarity essentially unimportant. Creamy head.
Flavor: Dark roasted grains and malts dominate the flavor as in dry stout, though there is medium to high sweetness. Hopping is moderate and tends to be
lower than in dry stout, emphasizing the malt sweetness.
Mouthfeel: Full-bodied and creamy. Carbonation low to moderate.
Overall Impression: A very dark, sweet, full-bodied, slightly roasty ale.
History: An English style of stout.
Comments: Gravities are low in England, higher in the exported product.
Ingredients: Lactose is sometimes added to provide additional residual sweetness. High carbonate water is all but essential.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.035-1.066
IBUs: 20-40 FG: 1.010-1.022
SRM: 35+ ABV: 3-5.6%
Commercial Examples: Mackeson's XXX Stout, Watney's Cream Stout, Samuel Adams Cream Stout, Tennent's Milk Stout.
16C. Oatmeal Stout
Aroma: Mild roasted grain aromas. Fruitiness should be low to medium. Diacetyl medium to none. Hop aroma low to none.
Appearance: Black in color. Thick creamy head. Dark color will likely obscure any clarity.
Flavor: Medium sweet to medium dry, with the complexity of dark roasted grains prominent. Medium hop bitterness with the balance toward malt. Diacetyl
low to medium. May have a slight nuttiness.
Mouthfeel: Full bodied, smooth, silky, with an oily or even mealy texture from the oatmeal.
Overall Impression: A very dark, full-bodied, roasty, malty ale.
History: A variation of sweet stout that is usually less sweet than the original.
Comments: Between sweet and dry stouts in sweetness.
Ingredients: Pale, caramel and dark roasted malts and grains. Oatmeal used to enhance fullness of body and complexity of flavor. Hops for bitterness only.
Ale yeast. Water source should have some carbonate hardness.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.035-1.060
IBUs: 20-50 FG: 1.010-1.018
SRM: 35+ ABV: 3.3-6.0%
Commercial Examples: Samuel Smith Oatmeal Stout, Young's Oatmeal Stout, Brew Moon Eclipse.
16D. Foreign Extra Stout
Aroma: Roasted grain aromas prominent. Fruitiness medium to high. Diacetyl low to medium. Hop aroma low to none. Occasionally has the aroma of
alcohol.
Appearance: Very deep brown to black in color. Clarity usually obscured by deep color.
Flavor: Can range from sweet to dry, with roasted grain character obvious but not sharp. Fruitiness can be low to high, diacetyl medium to none. Hop
bitterness can be medium to high.
Mouthfeel: Medium full body, creamy character. May give a warming impression.
Overall Impression: A very dark, moderately sweet, strong, roasty ale.
History: Originally high-gravity stouts brewed for tropical markets. Some bottled export versions of dry or sweet stout may also fit this profile.
Comments: These beers possess a stronger alcohol content than other stouts except the Imperial Stout.
Ingredients: Pale and dark roasted malts and grains. Hops for bitterness. Ale yeast.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.050-1.075
IBUs: 35-70 FG: 1.010-1.017
SRM: 35+ ABV: 5-7.5%
Commercial Examples: ABC Stout, Guinness Foreign Extra Stout (bottled).
17. WHEAT BEER
17A. Bavarian Weizen
Aroma: Vanilla and clove-like phenols and fruity esters of banana are common. Hop aroma ranges from low to none. No diacetyl. Some aroma of wheat
may be present.
Appearance: Pale straw to dark reddish-gold in color. A very thick, long-lasting head is characteristic. High protein content of wheat may impair clarity in
an unfiltered beer, and clarity can be deliberately cloudy in a Hefe-Weizen from suspended yeast sediment. The filtered Krystal version is quite clear.
Flavor: The soft, grainy flavor of wheat is essential. Hop flavor is low to none and hop bitterness is very low. A tart character from yeast and high
carbonation may be present. Spicy clove phenols and fruity esters, most prominently banana, are often present. No diacetyl.
Mouthfeel: The texture of wheat imparts the sensation of a fluffy, creamy fullness that may progress to a surprisingly light finish. A high carbonation level is
typical.
Overall Impression: A pale, spicy, fruity, wheat-based ale.
History: A traditional wheat-based ale from Southern Germany that is a specialty for summer consumption.
Comments: These are refreshing, fast-maturing beers that are lightly hopped. The Hefe-Weizen version is served with yeast sediment stirred into it. The
Krystal version is filtered for excellent clarity.
Ingredients: A high percentage of malted wheat is used which typically constitutes 50% or more of the grist, the remainder being pale barley malt. Weizen ale
yeast produces the typical spicy and fruity essences during a relatively warm fermentation. Hops are used for a small amount of bittering only. Water
character will vary.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.040-1.056
IBUs: 10-20 FG: 1.010-1.014
SRM: 2-9 ABV: 4.3-5.6%
Commercial Examples: Paulaner Hefe-Weizen, Pschorr-Brau Weisse, Spaten Club-Weisse, Schneider Weisse, Julius Echter Weizenbier.
17B. Bavarian Dunkelweizen
Aroma: Gentle aroma of Munich malt supported by fruity, notably banana, and clove-spice aromas. No hop aroma. No diacetyl.
Appearance: Light amber to light brown in color. A thick, long-lasting head is characteristic. High protein content of wheat may impair clarity in an
unfiltered beer.
Flavor: Melanoidins and caramel character of Munich and Vienna-type malts is prominent, along with some wheat flavor. There may be some spicy, fruity
flavor as well. Roasty character is rare and very restrained if present. Low hop bitterness. No hop flavor. No diacetyl.
Mouthfeel: The texture of wheat imparts the sensation of a fluffy, creamy fullness that may progress to a lighter finish. However, the presence of Munich and
Vienna-type malts provides its own sense of fullness. A moderate to high carbonation level is typical.
Overall Impression: A dark, malty, spicy, wheat-based ale.
History: A dark version of Bavarian Weizen.
Comments: The presence of Munich and Vienna-type barley malts gives this style a deeper and richer barley malt character than Bavarian Weizen. Often,
there is less of the tart quality as well.
Ingredients: Wheat malt typically makes up 50% or more of the grist, the remainder being Munich or Vienna-type high-kilned barley malts. Some dark
wheat malts may be used. Dark roasted malts are rarely used and then only in very small concentrations. Hops provide a mild bitterness only. Weizen ale
yeast is used. Water character will vary.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.040-1.056
IBUs: 10-20 FG: 1.010-1.014
SRM: 10-23 ABV: 4.3-5.6%
Commercial Examples: Pschorr-Brau Dunkel Weiss, Franziskaner Dunkel-Weizen, Schneider Dunkel Weiss.
17C. Berliner Weisse
Aroma: Slightly fruity; a sour aspect may be quite noticeable. On occasion a mild Brettanomyces yeast aroma may be present. No hop aroma. No diacetyl.
Appearance: Very pale straw in color. Clarity ranges from fair to cloudy. Despite high carbonation, head retention can vary from moussy to low.
Flavor: Lactic sourness dominates and can be quite strong, but some wheat flavor should be noticeable. Hop bitterness is very low. Mild Brettanomyces
yeast character may be detected occasionally. No hop flavor. No diacetyl.
Mouthfeel: Light body. High carbonation.
Overall Impression: A very pale, sour, refreshing, low-alcohol wheat ale.
History: A regional specialty of Berlin; referred to by Napoleon's troops in 1809 as "the Champagne of the North" due to its lively and elegant character.
Comments: Often served with the addition of sugar syrups flavored with raspberry or woodruff to counter the substantial sourness. Has been described by
some as the most purely refreshing beer in the world.
Ingredients: Wheat malt content is typically well under 50% of the grist, the remainder being pale barley malt. Lactobacillus delbruckii culture and
fermentation provides the sharp sourness, which may be enhanced by blending of beers of different ages during fermentation and by extended cool aging. Ale
yeast ferments to a low alcohol level. Hop bitterness is extremely low. Water may have significant hardness.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.026-1.036
IBUs: 3-8 FG: 1.006-1.009
SRM: 2-4 ABV: 2.8-3.6%
Commercial Examples: Schultheiss Berliner Weisse, Berliner Kindl Weisse.
17D. Weizenbock
Aroma: A powerful aroma of ripe fruit is very common. Aroma of alcohol is also common. Some clove-spice aroma may be present. No hop aroma. No
diacetyl.
Appearance: Light amber to dark brown in color. High alcohol level may impair what would otherwise be a thick, long-lasting head. Wheat protein content
may impair clarity.
Flavor: Concentrated wheat flavor is dominant. Malty complexity, including smoky or raisin-like essences, may be present in darker versions. A fruity
character is common, and some clove-spice flavor may occur. Well-aged examples may show some sherry-like oxidation as a point of complexity. Hop
bitterness is well controlled to allow wheat and malt flavors to dominate the balance. No hop flavor. No diacetyl.
Mouthfeel: Full-bodied. A creamy sensation is typical, as is the warming sensation of substantial alcohol content. Moderate carbonation.
Overall Impression: A strong, malty, fruity, wheat-based ale.
History: A Bavarian specialty first introduced by Schneider in 1907 under the Aventinus name.
Comments: A Bock among Bavarian Weizen beers.
Ingredients: Wheat malt is typically 50% or more of the grist, the remainder barley malts. Hops provide mild bitterness only. Weizen ale yeasts are used.
Water character can vary.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.066-1.080+
IBUs: 15-30 FG: 1.015-1.022
SRM: 7-25 ABV: 6.5-8.0%+
Commercial Examples: Schneider Aventinus, Erdinger Pikantus, Pyramid Weizenbock.
18. STRONG BELGIAN ALE
18A. Dubbel
Aroma: Rich malt aromas are typical; many dubbels have raisiny and other fruity ester aromas. No roasted malt aroma. Some higher alcohol aromas
(peppery, spicy) are common. Mild to moderate clove-spice aromas may be present. Hop aroma is faint to none. No diacetyl.
Appearance: Dark amber-brown in color. Clarity is usually fair to good. Head retention may be adversely affected by alcohol content in stronger versions.
Flavor: Rich malty and fruity flavors bring the balance toward malt throughout. Some commercial examples are malty, yet dry; raisin flavors are common.
A slight to moderate clove spiciness may be present. Hop flavor is low to none. No diacetyl.
Mouthfeel: Medium-full to full body. Warming mouthfeel from alcohol.
Overall Impression: A dark, rich, malty, moderately strong ale.
History: Originated at monasteries in the Middle Ages, and was revived in the mid-1800s after the Napoleonic era.
Comments: By Belgian law, to be called a Trappist Ale, it must be brewed at a Trappist monastery. Home brewed and secular equivalents should be called
abbey ales.
Ingredients: Yeast strains prone to production of higher alcohols, esters, and clove-spice aroma and flavor are most commonly used. Dark(caramelized)
candi sugar is a common and significant addition for color and flavor contributions.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.040-1.080
IBUs: 20-35 FG: 1.012-1.018
SRM: 10-20 ABV: 3.2-7.8%
Commercial Examples: Westmalle Dubbel, LaTrappe Dubbel, Affligem Dubbel, Steenbrugge Dubbel, Celis Dubbel, Westvletteren 4.
18B. Tripel
Aroma: Complex aroma of malt and fruity esters, which may have a citrus-like essence, and often a mild to moderate clove-spice character. Hop aroma
may be moderate to none. No diacetyl.
Appearance: Pale gold to deep gold in color. Clarity should be fair to good. Head retention may be quite good, or may be adversely affected by alcohol
content in some versions.
Flavor: Crisp and moderately fruity. Malty sweetness is balanced by restrained hop bitterness and high carbonation to provide a dry finish to the palate and a
sweet aftertaste. Clove-like spiciness is apparent in many examples. The best examples have subtle alcohol undertones, while others may have very
noticeable alcohol presence. Hop flavor may be moderate to none. No diacetyl.
Mouthfeel: Medium body, although a light impression (thanks to the candi sugar) given the often substantial original gravity. High alcohol content adds a
warming sensation. Carbonation is very high and effervescent in character, yet ideally does not disturb the beer's smoothness.
Overall Impression: A pale, moderately fruity, spicy, very strong ale.
History: Originally developed at the Trappist monastery at Westmalle.
Comments: Alcoholic, but the best examples do not taste strongly of alcohol. By Belgian law, to be called a Trappist ale it must be brewed at a Trappist
monastery. Home-brewed and secular equivalents should be called abbey ales.
Ingredients: Yeast strains prone to higher alcohol and clovey aroma production are usually used. Small amounts of spices are sometimes added. Pale Pilsner
malts are used and up to 25% white candi sugar (sucrose) is often added.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.065-1.095
IBUs: 20-35 FG: 1.013-1.020
SRM: 3.5-6 ABV: 6.3-10%
Commercial Examples: Westmalle Tripel, Affligem Tripel, Grimbergen Tripel, Corsendonk Monk's Pale Ale, Bruggse Tripel, New Belgium Trippel[sic].
18C. Belgian Strong Golden Ale
Aroma: Fruity esters are common, and the malt character is light. Some clove-spice character may be present, from either warm fermentation or actual spice
additions. A spicy hop aroma is sometimes found. No diacetyl.
Appearance: Pale yellow to golden in color. Good clarity. Long-lasting foam stand resulting in characteristic Belgian lace on the glass.
Flavor: Full of fruity, hoppy, alcoholic complexity, supported by a soft malt character. A slight presence of spices, from either warm ferment or actual spice
additions, may be present as a point of complexity. Hop bitterness is typically restrained. Substantial carbonation may lend a dry flavor to the palate despite a
sweet aftertaste. No diacetyl.
Mouthfeel: Medium body gives a light impression despite the often substantial original gravity and alcohol content. Usually effervescent, yet with a smooth
finish.
Overall Impression: A very pale, effervescent, complex, strong ale.
History: Most versions reflect the unique products of individual breweries.
Comments: References to the devil are included in the names of many commercial examples of this style. The best examples are elegant, complex, and
balanced.
Ingredients: The light color and relatively light body for a beer of this strength are the result of using very pale malt and up to 20% white candi sugar
(sucrose). Some versions include the use of spices for subtle complexity.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.065-1.080
IBUs: 25-35 FG: 1.014-1.020
SRM: 3.5-5.5 ABV: 7-9%
Commercial Examples: Duvel, Lucifer, La Chouffe, Moinette, Celis Grand Cru.
18D. Belgian Strong Dark Ale
Aroma: The intermingling aromas of Munich-type malt, alcohol and fruity esters are typical, along with spicy phenols which may be contributed by warm
yeast fermentation and/or actual spice additions. Hop aroma may vary from moderate to none. Typically there is no strong dark(roast) malt aroma. No
diacetyl.
Appearance: Deep burgundy to dark brown in color. Clarity may be fair to good. Head retention may be quite good or may be adversely affected by high
alcohol content.
Flavor: Ripe fruit flavors, including raisin and plum, are common. Malt usually dominates, but some examples are balanced slightly toward bitterness. Some
spicy phenols, from ferment or actual spices, may be present. Hop flavor can range from moderate to none. Some sweetness is contributed by alcohol. No
diacetyl.
Mouthfeel: Medium to full body, creamy and warming.
Overall Impression: A dark, very rich, complex, very strong ale.
History: Most versions are unique in character reflecting the characteristics of individual breweries.
Comments: Some beers of this type are brewed at or in association with monasteries, and some are not. In comparison to Dubbel, these are typically
significantly stronger beers of a wider variety.
Ingredients: Dark candi sugar is a frequently-used additive and may contribute as much or more color and flavor as dark Munich or caramel malts. Spices are
sometimes added for complexity. Yeasts prone to production of higher alcohols, esters and spicy phenols are commonly employed.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.065-1.098+
IBUs: 25-40+ FG: 1.014-1.024+
SRM: 7-20 ABV: 7-12+%
Commercial Examples: Pawel Kwak, Gouden Carolus, Scaldis (a.k.a. Bush), Rochefort 10, Chimay Grand Reserve.
19. BELGIAN AND FRENCH ALE
19A. Belgian Pale Ale
Aroma: Prominent but soft-edged aroma of malt, accented by small amounts of phenols, higher alcohols in some versions, and spices in some versions. Hop
aroma low to none. No diacetyl.
Appearance: Golden to copper in color. Clarity is fair to good. Good head retention.
Flavor: Fruity and lightly to moderately spicy, with a soft and smooth malt character. Higher alcohols may contribute complexity in some examples, but not
harshness. Hop flavor is relatively low. Hop bitterness is moderate, though some examples with high bitterness exist.
Mouthfeel: Light to medium in body, with a smooth quality and moderate carbonation.
Overall Impression: A fruity, slightly spicy, smooth, copper-colored ale.
History: Although produced by breweries with roots as far back as the mid-1700s, most well-known products were perfected after the Second World War
with some influence from Britain including yeast strains.
Comments: Best known as a draught beer, and most often encountered in the Belgian province of Antwerp.
Ingredients: Candi sugar may be used as an additive. Yeasts prone to production of higher alcohols and spiciness may or may not be used. On occasion
spices are used for subtle uniqueness.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.040-1.055
IBUs: 20-35 FG: 1.008-1.013
SRM: 3-14 ABV: 3.9-5.6%
Commercial Examples: Celis Pale Bock, De Koninck, Special Palm Ale, Ginder Ale.
19B. Witbier
Aroma: A sweet and occasionally honey-like character with prominent citrus (notably orange), herbal and spice aromas is characteristic, and is often followed
by a mild phenolic aroma. Hop aroma is low to none. No diacetyl.
Appearance: Very pale straw to very light gold in color, and generally cloudy. Head retention should be quite good and of a moussy character.
Flavor: The flavor of unmalted wheat is typically noticeable. Coriander, citrus and mild phenolic flavors contribute to a complex and elegant character. A
very slight lactic acidity resulting from a limited Lactobacillus fermentation is present in some examples, providing a refreshing quality, and is absent in
others. Hop flavor is low to none. Hop bitterness is typically restrained, and some bitterness may also be contributed by bitter orange peel. No diacetyl.
Mouthfeel: Light to medium body. Effervescent character of high carbonation. Refreshing acidity.
Overall Impression: A refreshing, elegant, complex, wheat-based ale.
History: A 400-year-old beer style that died out in the 1950s, it was revived by Pierre Celis in the 1960s to steadily growing popularity thereafter.
Comments: The presence and degree of spicing and lactic sourness vary from one brand or brewery to another.
Ingredients: About 50% unmalted hard red winter wheat and 50% pale barley malt constitute the grist; in some versions a small percentage of raw oats is
used as well. Spices of freshly-ground coriander and dried orange peel complement the sweet aroma and are quite characteristic; other spices may be used for
complexity but are much less prominent. Ale yeast prone to production of mild, clovey/spicey flavors are very characteristic. In some instances a very limited
Lactobacillus fermentation, or actual addition of lactic acid, is done.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.042-1.055
IBUs: 15-22 FG: 1.008-1.012
SRM: 2-4 ABV: 4.2-5.5%
Commercial Examples: Celis White, Hoegaarden Wit, Steendonk Witbier, Brugs Tarwebier, Blanche de Bruges.
19C. Biere de Garde
Aroma: Malt is prominent in the aroma, which is otherwise complex with a slight level of fruity esters, little or no hop aroma, and often a musty/woody
character. Higher alcohols may be detected. Diacetyl low to none.
Appearance: Color can vary from full gold, to copper-colored (most common), to a dark reddish-brown. Clarity and head retention are generally good.
Flavor: A medium to high malt flavor often characterized by toffee or caramel aspects is typical. A slight musty or woody character may be present. Hop
bitterness is often modest, though subtle and restrained hop flavors may occur. Diacetyl low to none.
Mouthfeel: Medium body, which in the best examples has a very smooth, silky character to it. Alcohol level is medium to strong and gives a warming
sensation. Moderate carbonation.
Overall Impression: A rich, complex, malty, moderately strong ale.
History: A farmhouse style from northeastern France which reflects the "March beer" tradition of a stronger beer brewed at the end of the cool season to last
through the warm months. Its revival began in the 1970s after nearly disappearing in the aftermath of World War II.
Comments: The name means "beer for keeping," denoting a beer that is strong enough to be stored for quite a while.
Ingredients: Typically made from pale malts and a Vienna or Munich type. Crystal malt plays a prominent role in some examples. A variety of continental
hops displaying very subtle floral or spicy aromas and flavors may be used. Some examples are now brewed with lager yeast fermented at higher
temperatures. Water is generally soft and imparts a smooth flavor profile.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.060-1.080
IBUs: 20-35 FG: 1.014-1.022
SRM: 5-18 ABV: 4.5-8%
Commercial Examples: Jenlain, Castelain, Trois Mont, Septante Cinq, Brasseurs Biere de Garde.
19D. Saison
Aroma: Fruity esters dominate the aroma. Complexity is often contributed by hop aroma, complex higher alcohols, herbs and spices, and phenols. Generally
the malt aroma is low. No diacetyl.
Appearance: Distinctive pale orange color with a dense, rocky head. Clarity is generally good.
Flavor: Bitter but not assertively so, providing a refreshing character. The hoppy, fruity flavors typical of this style may include citric notes, and often the
addition of several spices and herbs. Hop bitterness is moderate, and hop flavor may be moderate to high but should not overwhelm fruity esters, spices, and
malt. Malt character is light but provides sufficient structure for the other complex flavors which may include a quenching tartness. No diacetyl.
Mouthfeel: Light to medium body. Very high carbonation with an effervescent quality. Alcohol level can be medium to high.
Overall Impression: A fruity, hoppy, highly carbonated, moderately strong, refreshing ale.
History: The style has origins in the traditions of the "March beer" brewed at the end of the cool season to last through the warmer months. It is now brewed
year-round.
Comments: A seasonal summer style produced in Wallonia, the French-speaking part of Belgium.
Ingredients: Pale malt dominates the grist, and a very small fraction of Vienna or Munich malt contributes a touch of color. Hop bitterness and flavor may be
more noticeable than in many other Belgian styles, and Saison is often dry-hopped. A number of different spices and herbs may be used to add complexity,
interest, and uniqueness to each brewery's products.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.055-1.080
IBUs: 20-45 FG: 1.010-1.015
SRM: 6-12 ABV: 4.5-8.1%
Commercial Examples: Saison Dupont, Moinette, Laforet, Saison Silly, Sezoens.
19E. Belgian Specialty Ale
Aroma: Most exhibit varying amounts of fruity esters, spicy phenols, and other yeast-borne aromatics; some may include very slight aromas of
Brettanomyces and other microflora. Hop aroma may be low to moderate. Malt aroma may be low to high and may include essences of grains other than
barley, such as wheat or rye. No diacetyl.
Appearance: Color varies considerably, from pale gold to medium amber. Clarity may be poor to good. Head retention is usually good.
Flavor: A great variety of flavor is found in these beers. Maltiness may be light to quite rich, hop flavor and bitterness generally increase along with the depth
of malt quality, and spicy flavors may be imparted by yeast and/or actual spice additions.
Mouthfeel: Most are well-attenuated, thus fairly light-bodied (for their original gravity), and well-carbonated. A warming sensation from alcohol may be
present in stronger examples.
Overall Impression: This category encompasses a wide variety of Belgian-style ales that typify the imaginative products often necessary to attract customers
in the world's most competitive beer market, Belgium.
History: Unique beers of small independent Belgian breweries that have come to enjoy local popularity, but may be far less well-known outside of their own
regions.
Comments: A category for the myriad unusual and distinctive Belgian ales which don't fit into any of the other style descriptions for Belgian-style beers
contained in these guidelines. These beers run the gamut of aromas, flavors, colors, mouthfeel and alcohol content and are often fermented with unusual and
distinctive yeasts and ingredients. Brewer should specify commercial equivalent for entry, if appropriate.
Ingredients: May include candi sugar additions, unusual grains and malts, and spices or herbs.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.040-1.070
IBUs: 20-40 FG: 1.008-1.016
SRM: 3-8 ABV: 4-8.0%
Commercial Examples: Orval, Kasteel Bier, DeDolle's Oerbier, Arabier, Stille Nacht, Bokrijks Kruikenbier.
20. LAMBIC AND BELGIAN SOUR ALE
20A. Straight (Unblended) Lambic-Style Ale
Aroma: The aroma of these beers is a complex blend from a wide variety of microbiota, often described in the following terms: horsey, horse blanket, sweaty,
oaky, hay, and sour. Other aromas that are found in small quantities are: enteric, vinegary and barnyard. Lambics can also be very fruity, and a corky or
woody character may also be detected on occasion. Typically, no hop aroma or diacetyl are perceived.
Appearance: May be cloudy. Head retention is not expected to be very good. Yellow to gold color.
Flavor: Young examples are intensely sour from lactic acid and at times some acetic acid. When aged, the sourness is more in balance with the malt and
wheat character. Fruit flavors are simpler in young lambics and more complex in the older examples. Some oak or wood flavor is sometimes noticeable. Hop
bitterness is low to none. Hop flavor is absent. Typically, no diacetyl is perceived.
Mouthfeel: Medium to light in body. Bottled lambic ales vary from well-carbonated to not carbonated, and draft lambic is virtually flat.
Overall Impression: Complex, sour, pale, wheat-based ales fermented with a variety of microflora.
History: Uniquely sour ales from the Senne (Zenne) Valley of Belgium which stem from a farmhouse brewing tradition several centuries old.
Comments: Straight lambics have a fruity complexity and intense acidity, and very few are bottled. Blended, aged and bottle-conditioned lambics, called
gueuze or geuze, tend to have a smoother palate. Lambic is spelled "lambiek" in Flemish.
Ingredients: Unmalted wheat (30-40%) and aged hops are used. Traditionally, these beers are spontaneously fermented with naturally occurring yeast and
bacteria in oak or in some cases chestnut barrels. Home-brewed and craft-brewed versions are more typically made with pure cultures of yeast, including
Saccharomyces and Brettanomyces, along with Pediococcus and Lactobacillus bacteria, in an attempt to recreate the effects of the dominant microflora of the
Senne/Zenne valley.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.044-1.056
IBUs: 10-15 FG: 1.006-1.012
SRM: 4-15 ABV: 4.7-5.8%
Commercial Examples: Very few straight (unblended) lambics are bottled. Most commonly available is Grand Cru Cantillon Bruocsella 1900. In the area
around Brussels (Bruxelles), there are specialty cafes that have draught lambics from traditional brewers such as Boon, Cantillon, De Neve, Girardin,
Hanssens, Vander Linden and Timmermans.
20B. Gueuze/Geuze-Style Ale
Aroma: The aroma of these beers is a complex blend of aromas from a wide variety of microbiota. These aromas include: horsey, horse blanket, sweaty,
oaky, hay, and sour. Other aromas that may be found in small quantities are: enteric, vinegary, and barnyard. There can be a very fruity aroma, and some
mustiness may be detected. Typically, no hop aroma or diacetyl are perceived.
Appearance: Gold to medium amber color. May be slightly cloudy. Head retention is not expected to be very good.
Flavor: Young examples are intensely sour from lactic acid and at times some acetic acid; when aged, the sourness is more in balance with the malt and
wheat character. Fruit flavors from esters are simpler in young Gueuze and more complex in the older examples. A slight oak, cork or wood flavor is
sometimes noticeable. Typically, no hop flavor or diacetyl are perceived.
Mouthfeel: Younger bottles (less than five years old) tend to be sparkling, but older vintages are at times less carbonated. Light to medium-light body. Avery
faint astringency is often present, like wine, but no more than a well-aged red wine.
Overall Impression: Intensely refreshing, fruity, complex, sour, pale wheat-based ales fermented with a variety of microflora.
History: Uniquely sour ales from the Senne (Zenne) Valley of Belgium which stem from a farmhouse brewing tradition several centuries old. Gueuze is the
French spelling, while geuze is the Flemish spelling.
Comments: Gueuze/geuze is traditionally made by blending lambic that ranges in age from three years to less than one year and then bottled. Typically,
gueuze/geuze has a smoother palate than straight lambic.
Ingredients: Unmalted wheat (30-40%) and aged hops are used. Traditionally, these beers are spontaneously fermented and aged with naturally occurring
yeast and bacteria in oak or chestnut barrels. Home-brewed and craft-brewed versions are more typically made with pure cultures of yeast, including
Saccharomyces and Brettanomyces, along with Pediococcus and Lactobacillus bacteria, in an attempt to recreate the effects of dominant microflora of the
Senne/Zenne valley.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.044-1.056
IBUs: 10-15 FG: 1.006-1.012
SRM: 4-15 ABV: 4.7-5.8%
Commercial Examples: Boon, Cantillon, Hanssens, Lindeman's, Boon Mariage Parfait, Girardin, Vandervelden Oud Beersel, DeKeersmaeker.
20C. Fruit Lambic-Style Ale
Aroma: In younger vintages, the fruit with which the beer has been flavored should be the dominant aroma. In old bottles, the fruit aroma typically has faded
and other aromas are more noticeable: horsey, horse blanket, sweaty, oaky, hay and sour. Other aromas that maybe found in small quantities are: enteric,
vinegary and barnyard. Lambics can be very fruity from esters as well. Typically, no hop aroma or diacetyl are perceived.
Appearance: May be slightly cloudy. Head retention is not expected to be very good. The variety of fruit determines the color.
Flavor: Young examples are intensely sour from lactic acid and at times some acetic acid; when aged, the sourness is more in balance with the fruit, malt and
wheat character. Fruit flavors are simpler and more one-dimensional in young lambics (the fruit added being dominant) and more complex in the older
examples. A slight oak, cork or wood flavor is sometimes noticeable. Typically, no hop flavor or diacetyl are perceived.
Mouthfeel: Younger bottles (less than five years) tend to be sparkling, older vintages are sometimes less carbonated. Light to medium-light body. A very
faint astringency is acceptable, like wine, but no more than a well-aged red wine.
Overall Impression: Intensely refreshing, fruit-flavored, complex, sour, pale, wheat-based ales fermented with a variety of microflora.
History: Uniquely sour ales from the Senne (Zenne) Valley of Belgium which stem from a farmhouse brewing tradition several centuries old. The addition of
fruit for flavoring may be a relatively recent post-World War II innovation, however.
Comments: Commonly made by blending two- or three-year-old straight lambic with young (less than 1-year-old) straight lambic, after which fruit is added
for further fermentation and aging before bottle-conditioning with very young straight lambic.
Ingredients: A blend of older and younger straight lambics is used as a base. Fruits commonly used for flavoring are cherries (Kriek) and raspberries
(Framboise), although more recent commercial examples include peaches (Peche), grapes (Vigneronne or Muscat) and black currants (Cassis). Entrant must
specify the type of fruit used in making the entry.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.044-1.056 (plus the fruit)
IBUs: 10-15 FG: 1.006-1.012
SRM: 4-15 ABV: 4.7-5.8%
Commercial Examples: Cantillon Rose de Gambrinus, Cantillon Kriek, Cantillon Gueuze Vigneronne, Drie Fontainen Kriek, Hanssens Kriek; Boon Kriek
Mariage Parfait, Framboise Marriage Parfait.
20D. Oud Bruin
Aroma: Deep complexity of fruity esters and Munich-type malt, including notes of raisins and sherry wine in well-aged examples. A slight sour aroma may
be present. Hop aroma is very low to none. Diacetyl is typically medium-low to none.
Appearance: Dark reddish-brown to brown color. Good clarity. Average to good head retention.
Flavor: Malty, with fruity complexity and some caramelization character. A slight sourness may become more pronounced in well-aged examples, along with
some sherry-like character, producing a "sweet-and-sour" profile. Hop flavor is low to none. Hop bitterness is restrained. Diacetyl is medium-low to none.
Mouthfeel: Medium body. Some oak character may be present but not to the point of high astringency. The astringency should be like that of a wine, but no
more than a well-aged red wine.
Overall Impression: A malty, complex, aged, sour brown ale.
History: An "old ale" tradition typified by the products of the Liefman's brewery in East Flanders, which has roots dating back to the 1600s. Historically
brewed as a "provision beer" which would develop some sourness as it aged.
Comments: Long aging and blending of young and well-aged beer may occur, adding to smoothness and complexity. A deeper malt character and less of the
sourness of lactic or acetic acid distinguishes these beers from Flanders red ales.
Ingredients: A blend of Vienna and Munich malts are used as the base with smaller amounts of crystal malts also used. Ale yeast, Lactobacillus and some
acetobacters may all contribute to the ferment and flavor. Water high in sodium bicarbonate is typical of its home region and may buffer the acidity of darker
malts and the lactic sourness. As in fruit lambics, Oud Bruin can be used as a base for fruit-flavored beers such as kriek (cherries) or frambozen (raspberries).
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.042-1.060
IBUs: 14-25 FG: 1.008-1.016
SRM: 10-20 ABV: 4-5.8%
Commercial Examples: Liefman's Goudenband, Felix, Roman.
20E. Flanders Red Ale
Aroma: Deep complexity of fruitiness and malt. Sour or vinegary aroma may be present and there is often an oak aroma. No hop aroma. Diacetyl aroma
moderately-low to none.
Appearance: Deep red to reddish-brown in color. Good clarity. Average to good head retention.
Flavor: Malty, with fruity complexity and balanced toward complex sourness/acidity. Hop flavor is low to none. Hop bitterness is restrained. Diacetyl low
to none.
Mouthfeel: Medium body. Some oak character is typical but not to the point of high astringency. The astringency should be like that of wine, but no more
than a well-aged red wine.
Overall Impression: A complex, sour, wine-like red ale.
History: Typified by the products of the Rodenbach brewery established in 1820 in West Flanders, but reflective of earlier brewing traditions.
Comments: Long aging and blending of young and well-aged beer may occur, adding to smoothness and complexity. More wine-like than perhaps any other
beer style.
Ingredients: A blend of Vienna and Munich malts are used as the base with smaller amounts of crystal malts also used. A complex mix of ale yeast,
Lactobacillus and acetobacters all contribute to the ferment and flavor.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.042-1.060
IBUs: 14-25 FG: 1.008-1.016
SRM: 10-16 ABV: 4-5.8%
Commercial Examples: Rodenbach and Rodenbach Grand Cru, Petrus, Bourgogne des Flandres, Vlaamse Bourgogne.
21. FRUIT BEER
Aroma: The character of the particular fruit(s) should be distinctive in the aroma. Overall the aroma should be a balanced combination of malt, hops and the
featured fruit(s) as appropriate to the specific type of beer being presented. If the base beer is an ale then general fruitiness and other fermentation byproducts
such as diacetyl may be present as appropriate for the warmer fermentation. If the base beer is a lager, then overall less fermentation byproducts would be
appropriate. Some malt aroma preferable, especially in dark styles; hop aroma absent or balanced with fruit, depending on the style. The overall aroma should
be balanced and harmonious.
Appearance: Appearance should be appropriate to the base beer being presented and will vary depending on the base beer. For lighter beers with fruits that
exhibit distinctive colors, the color should be noticeable.
Flavor: The character of the particular fruit(s) should be distinctive in the flavor profile. Hop bitterness, flavor, malt flavors, alcohol content and fermentation
byproducts, such as diacetyl, should be appropriate to the base beer and harmonious and balanced with the distinctive fruit flavors present.
Mouthfeel: Mouthfeel may vary depending on the base beer selected and as appropriate to that base beer. Body and carbonation levels should be appropriate
to the base beer style being presented.
Overall Impression: A harmonious marriage of fruit and beer.
Comments: Overall balance is the key to presenting a well-made fruit beer. The fruit should complement the original style and not overwhelm it. The brewer
should recognize that some combinations of base beer styles and fruits work well together while others do not make for harmonious combinations. The
entrant must specify the underlying beer style as well as the type of fruit(s) used. If the base beer is a classic style, the original style should come through in
aroma and flavor. Judges should remember that many fruits dry out classic styles.
Vital Statistics: OG, FG, IBUs, SRM and ABV will vary depending on the underlying base beer.
Commercial Examples: Oxford Raspberry Wheat, Oregon Blackberry Porter, Pyramid Apricot Ale, Rogue 'n' Berry, Brimstone Blueberry Wheat, Oaken
Barrel Raspberry Wheat.
22. SPICE/HERB/VEGETABLE BEER
Aroma: The character of the particular spices, herbs and/or vegetables (SHV) should be distinctive in the aroma. Overall the aroma should be a balanced
combination of malt, hops and the featured SHV(s) as appropriate to the specific type of beer being presented. If the base beer is an ale then general fruitiness
and other fermentation byproducts such as diacetyl may be present as appropriate for the warmer fermentation. If the base beer is a lager, then overall less
fermentation byproducts would be appropriate. Some malt aroma preferable, especially in dark styles; hop aroma absent or balanced with the SHVs used,
depending on style. The overall aroma should be balanced and harmonious.
Appearance: Appearance should be appropriate to the base beer being presented and will vary depending on the base beer. For lighter beers with spices,
herbs or vegetables that exhibit distinctive colors, the colors should be noticeable.
Flavor: The character of the particular SHV(s) should be distinctive in the flavor profile. Hop bitterness, flavor, malt flavors, alcohol content, and
fermentation byproducts, such as diacetyl, should be appropriate to the base beer and harmonious and balanced with the distinctive SHV flavors present.
Mouthfeel: Mouthfeel may vary depending on the base beer selected and as appropriate to that base beer. Body and carbonation levels should be appropriate
to the base beer style being presented.
Overall Impression: A harmonious marriage of spices, herbs and/or vegetables and beer.
Comments: Overall balance is the key to presenting a well-made spice, herb or vegetable (SHV) beer. The SHV should complement the original style and not
overwhelm it. The brewer should recognize that some combinations of base beer styles and SHVs work well together while others do not make for
harmonious combinations. The entrant must specify the underlying beer style as well as the type of SHV(s) used. If the base beer is a classic style, the
original style should come through in aroma and flavor. Additionally, whenever multiple spices, herbs or vegetables are used each should be distinctive in
their own way.
Vital Statistics: OG, FG, IBUs, SRM and ABV will vary depending on the underlying base beer.
Commercial Examples: Harpoon Winter Warmer, Ed's Cave Creek Chili Beer, Buffalo Bill's Pumpkin Ale, Anchor Our Special Ale, Wild Onion Pumpkin
Ale.
23. SMOKE-FLAVORED BEER
23A. Classic Rauchbier
Aroma: Smoky aroma may range from faint to assertive. Some malt should be evident in the low- to moderately-smoked examples. Note that the smoke
character can vary even among beechwood-smoked malts. Hop aroma should be negligible to very low. This beer is a lager; there should be no diacetyl or
fruity aromas. The malt character from the underlying Maerzen/Oktoberfest style should be evident.
Appearance: This should be a very clear beer, with a rich creamy head. The color should be amber, copper to dark brown.
Flavor: Sweetish, maltiness from the underlying Maerzen/Oktoberfest style of beer with smoke flavors ranging from low to high, but balanced with the malt
and hop bitterness. The smoke flavor from beechwood kilning tends to be somewhat drier and neutral in character, although it can vary among maltsters,
blending well with the sweetness of the malt. This beer will exhibit low to medium hop bitterness, low to no hop flavor, and the clean characteristics of a
lager with no fruitiness or diacetyl.
Mouthfeel: Medium body with a good, medium level of carbonation. Smooth finish due to lagering.
Overall Impression: Maerzen/Oktoberfest-style (see Oktoberfest) beer with a sweet, smoky aroma and flavor.
History: In the tradition of the Franconian region of Germany, a Maerzen/Oktoberfest style of beer made with malts kilned over moist beechwood log embers,
imparting a smoky flavor and aroma to the beer. This beer is indigenous to Bamberg, Germany.
Comments: Examples of other smoked beer styles are available in Germany, such as the Bocks, Helles and Vienna-like beers such as Spezial Lager. Brewers
entering these styles should use Other Smoked Beers as the entry category.
Ingredients: Because of the unique flavored rendered to malts by various smoking materials, beechwood-kilned, not malts smoked with peat, hickory or other
woods, should make up 5-50% of the malt bill. German or Czech hops.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.050-1.064
IBUs: 20-30 FG: 1.012-1.016
SRM: 7-16 ABV: 4.8-6.5%
Commercial Examples: Schlenkerla Rauchbier, Kaiserdom Rauchbier.
23B. Other Smoked Beer
Aroma: The aroma should be a balance between the expected aroma of the base beer (e.g., robust porter) and the smokiness imparted by the use of smoked
malts. Smokiness may vary from low to assertive; however, balance in the overall presentation is the key to well-made examples.
Appearance: Varies with the base beer style.
Flavor: As with aroma, there should be a balance between smokiness and the expected flavor characteristics of the base beer style. Smokiness may vary from
low to assertive. Smoky flavors may range from woodsy to slightly bacony depending on the type of malts used.
Mouthfeel: Varies with the base beer style.
Overall Impression: This is any beer that is exhibiting smoke as a principle flavor and aroma characteristic other than the Bamberg-style Rauchbier. Balance
in the use of smoke, hops and malt character is exhibited by the better examples. If this beer is based on a classic style (e.g., smoked robust porter), then the
specific classic style (e.g., robust porter) must be identified. In this case the beer will be judged on its merits as the classic style and how well that smoke
flavor and aroma integrate with the beer and are exhibited.
Comments: The process of using smoked malts more recently has been adapted to other styles, notably porter and Scotch ales.
Ingredients: Different materials used to smoke malt result in unique flavor and aroma characteristics. Beechwood-, peat- or other hardwood (alder and
fruitwoods suggested) smoked malts may be used. Hickory wood often results in a bacon/spare-ribs flavor and aroma, whereas alder wood smoked malt
results in a smoked salmon taste. Evergreen wood should never be used since it adds a medicine-like, piney flavor to the malt.
Vital Statistics: Varies with the base beer style.
Commercial Examples: Vermont Pub and Brewery's Smoked Porter, Otter Creek Hickory-Switched Smoked Amber, Adelscott Peat Smoked Ale, Alaskan
Smoked Porter, Spezial Lager.
24. SPECIALTY/EXPERIMENTAL/HISTORICAL
Any ale or lager beer brewed using unusual techniques (hot rocks, etc.), unique fermentables (such as maple syrup, honey, etc.),unique adjuncts (oats, rye,
potatoes, etc.), low alcohol, combinations of fruits and spices/herbs/vegetables, or historical beers (Entire, IPA with Brettanomyces, Louvain Peeterman, etc.).
Experimental beers that do not otherwise meet the other established style categories may be entered here.
Aroma: The character of the stated uniqueness should be distinctive in the aroma. Overall the aroma should be a balanced combination of malt, hops and the
featured uniqueness as appropriate to the specific type of beer being presented. If the base beer is an ale then general fruitiness and other fermentation
byproducts such as diacetyl may be present as appropriate for the warmer fermentation. If the base beer is a lager, then overall less fermentation byproducts
would be appropriate. The overall aroma should be balanced and harmonious.
Appearance: Appearance should be appropriate to the base beer being presented and will vary depending on the base beer.
Flavor: The character of the particular ingredient or technique should be distinctive in the flavor profile. Hop bitterness and flavor, malt flavors, alcohol
content and fermentation byproducts, such as diacetyl, should be appropriate to the base beer and harmonious and balanced with the distinctive nature of
flavors present.
Mouthfeel: Mouthfeel may vary depending on the base beer selected and as appropriate to that base beer. Body and carbonation levels should be appropriate
to the base beer style being presented.
Overall Impression: A harmonious marriage ingredients, processes and beer.
Comments: Overall balance is the key to presenting a well-made specialty beer. The distinctive nature of the stated specialty should complement the original
style and not overwhelm it. The brewer should recognize that some combinations of base beer styles and ingredients or techniques work well together while
others do not make for harmonious combinations. The brewer must specify the underlying beer style as well as the type of unique ingredients used, process
utilized or historical beer style being brewed. If the base beer is a classic style, the original style should come through in aroma and flavor. Additionally,
whenever multiple fruits, spices, herbs or vegetables are used each should be distinctive in their own way. For historical styles that may not be known to all
beer judges, the brewer may provide a copy of the text of references to these beers as an aid to the judges.
Vital Statistics: OG, FG, IBUs, SRM and ABV will vary depending on the underlying base beer.
25. MEAD
25A. Traditional Mead
Aroma: Honey aroma should dominate, which may be sweet and may express the aroma of flower nectar. Aromas produced during fermentation, such as
fruity esters and alcohol, may also be present.
Appearance: Clarity may be good to brilliant. Carbonated examples will show active evidence of dissolved gas but no head is expected. Color may range
from pale straw to deep amber.
Flavor: The flavor of honey should be featured and may include residual sweetness. Any additives, such as acidity or tannin, should enhance the honey flavor
and lend balance to the overall character of the mead.
Mouthfeel: Smooth texture. Most will be wine-like, with the warming presence of alcohol and sense of medium body. Sensations of a cloying or astringent
character should be avoided.
Comments: A mead made primarily from honey, water and yeast. Meads which feature the character of a blended honey or a blend of honeys. For meads
made from a single variety of money see below B, Varietal Honey Traditional Mead. While some oxidation of mead is OK and can actually lend useful
complexity to the mead, over oxidation as exhibited by sherry-like aroma and/or taste should be avoided. Phenols produced by high temperature fermentation
are also to be avoided. Entrants must specify whether the entry is still or sparkling mead. Entrants must also indicate whether the mead is dry, semi-sweet or
sweet.
Vital Statistics: Effective OG: 1.070-1.120+
IBUs: N/A FG: 0.995-1.025
SRM: 1-16 ABV: 7.5-15+%
25B. Varietal Honey Traditional Mead
Aroma: Honey aroma should dominate, which may be sweet and may express the aroma of flower nectar. Aromas produced during fermentation, such as
fruity esters and alcohol, may also be present. The particular Varietal honey aroma (such as orange blossoms for orange blossom honey) should be evident.
Appearance: Clarity may be good to brilliant. Carbonated examples will show active evidence of dissolved gas but no head is expected. Color may range
from pale straw to deep amber.
Flavor: The flavor of honey should be featured and may include residual sweetness. The distinctive taste of the Varietal honey should be showcased. Any
additives, such as acidity or tannin, should enhance the honey flavor and lend balance to the overall character of the mead.
Mouthfeel: Smooth texture. Most will be wine-like, with the warming presence of alcohol and sense of medium body. Sensations of a cloying or astringent
character should be avoided.
Comments: Mead made from honey from a particular flower source. The brewer must name the varietal honey. Note that the character of a varietal honey
will be identifiable as distinct to the source, but may not resemble the source. Orange-blossom honey has the character of orange blossoms, not oranges.
Blackberry honey is only distantly like blackberries, although it is an identifiable character. While some oxidation of mead is OK and can actually lend useful
complexity to the mead, over oxidation as exhibited by sherry-like aroma and/or taste should be avoided. Phenols produced by high temperature fermentation
are also to be avoided. Entrants must specify whether the entry is still or sparkling mead. Entrants must also specify whether the entry is dry, semi-sweet or
sweet.
Vital Statistics: Effective OG: 1.070-1.120+
IBUs: N/A FG: 0.995-1.025
SRM: 1-16 ABV: 7.5-15+
25C. Cyser (Apple Melomel)
A mead made with the addition of apples or apple juice. Traditionally, cysers are made by the addition of honey to apple juice without additional water.
Aroma: Should have distinct apple character with a pronounced honey aroma, which may be sweet and may express the aroma of flower nectar. Aromas
produced during fermentation, such as fruity esters, low levels of sulfur and alcohol, may also be present.
Appearance: Clarity may be good to brilliant. Carbonated examples will show active evidence of dissolved gas but no head is expected. Color may range
from pale straw to deep amber.
Flavor: Should have distinct apple character but should also have a balanced honey character. The Apple character may supply tart acidity to cut the honey
sweetness, so one may notice tart acidity first and residual sweetness thereafter. Any additives, such as acidity or tannin, should enhance the honey flavor and
lend balance to the overall character of the cyser. In well made examples of the style, the fruit is both distinctive and well-incorporated into the sugar-acid
balance of the mead. Some of the best examples have the taste and aroma of an aged Calvados (apple brandy from northern France).
Mouthfeel: Smooth texture. Most will be wine-like, with the warming presence of alcohol and sense of medium body. Sensations of a cloying or astringent
character should be avoided.
Comments: There should be an appealing blend of the fruit and honey character but not necessarily an even balance. Generally a good tannin-sweetness
balance is desired, though very dry and very sweet examples do exist. Entrants must specify whether the entry is still or sparkling cyser. Entrants must also
specify whether the entry is dry, semi-sweet or sweet.
Vital Statistics: Effective OG: 1.070-1.120+
IBUs: N/A FG: 0.995-1.025
SRM: 1-16 ABV: 7.5-15+%
25D. Pyment (Grape Melomel)
A mead made with the addition of grapes or grape juice. Alternatively, the pyment may be a grape wine sweetened with honey, a mixture of grape juice and
honey that is fermented or a mixture of grape wine and mead mixed after fermentation.
Aroma: Should have distinct grape or grape-wine character with a pronounced honey aroma, which may be sweet and may express the aroma of flower
nectar. Aromas produced during fermentation, such as fruity esters and alcohol, may also be present.
Appearance: Clarity will be good to brilliant. Carbonated examples will show active evidence of dissolved gas but no head is expected. Color would reflect
the grape source, whether white, red or other.
Flavor: Should have distinct grape wine character, manifested in acidity, tannin and other grape characteristics, but the honey character should balance the
fruit flavors. Grassy white wine character or buttery(diacetyl) Chardonnay character is appropriate in pyment only. In well made examples of the style, the
fruit is both distinctive and well-incorporated into the sugar-acid balance of the pyment.
Mouthfeel: Smooth texture. Most will be wine-like, with the warming presence of alcohol and sense of medium body. Sensations of a cloying or astringent
character should be avoided.
Comments: There should be an appealing blend of the fruit and honey character but not necessarily an even balance. Generally a good tannin-sweetness
balance is desired, though very dry and very sweet examples do exist. Entrants must specify whether the entry is still or sparkling pyment. Entrants must also
specify whether the entry is dry, semi-sweet, or sweet.
Vital Statistics: Effective OG: 1.070-1.120+
IBUs: N/A FG: 0.995-1.025
SRM: 1-16 ABV: 7.5-15+%
25E. Other Fruit Melomel
A mead made with the addition of other fruit or fruit juices. There should be an appealing blend of the fruit and honey character but not necessarily an even
balance.
Aroma: Should exhibit the aroma of the fruit(s) present in the mead. In a melomel with a blend of fruits, one fruit may dominate the aroma profile.
Appearance: Clarity will be good to brilliant. Carbonated examples will show active evidence of dissolved gas but no head is expected. The particular
fruit(s) used may or may not impart color to the mead.
Flavor: Fruit flavor contributions to the mead range from subtle acidic notes to intense, instantly recognizable fruit flavors. In a melomel with a blend of
fruits, one fruit may dominate the flavor profile. There should be a balanced honey character as well. Some fruits will lend a cloying sweetness to the mead
while others add a drying character. In well- made examples of the style, the fruit is both distinctive and well-incorporated into the sugar-acid balance of the
mead.
Mouthfeel: Smooth texture. Most will be wine-like, with the warming presence of alcohol and sense of medium body. Sensations of a cloying or astringent
character should be avoided.
Comments: Generally a good tannin-sweetness balance is desired, though very dry and very sweet examples do exist. Some fruits, notably darker ones like
Blackberries, may contribute a tannin presence not unlike dark pyments. Some oxidative properties may be appropriate in certain fruit meads, giving them a
sherry or port wine character. Entrants must specify whether the entry is still or sparkling mead. Entrants must also specify whether the mead is dry, semi-sweet
or sweet.
Vital Statistics: Effective OG: 1.070-1.120+
IBUs: N/A FG: 0.995-1.025
SRM: 1-16 ABV: 7.5-15+%
25F. Metheglin
A mead made with the addition of spices or herbs.
Aroma: The spices/herbs may be expressed in the aroma. Honey characters should appear in the aroma but will vary in intensity depending on the
spices/herbs used. Metheglins containing more than one spice should have a good balance among the different spices/herbs, though some spices/herbs will
tend to dominate the aroma profile.
Appearance: Clarity may be good to brilliant. Carbonated examples will show active evidence of dissolved gas but no head is expected. Color may range
from pale straw to deep amber; the color usually won't be affected by the spices or herbs.
Flavor: The spices/herbs should be expressed in the flavor but the honey character is still the backbone of the mead and should appear in the flavor but will
vary in intensity depending on the spices/herbs used. The spices/herbs should be expressed in the flavor as a distinctive enhancement to the honey flavor,
whether harmoniously or by contrast, and should achieve a pleasant balance when a blend of spices/herbs is used. Metheglins containing more than one spice
should have a good balance among the different spices/herbs, though some spices/herbs will tend to dominate the flavor profile.
Mouthfeel: Smooth texture. Most will be wine-like, with the warming presence of alcohol and sense of medium body. Sensations of a cloying or astringent
character should be avoided; however, some spices or herbs may affect mouthfeel particularly by adding astringency.
Comments: Often, a blend of spices may give a character greater than the sum of its parts. The better examples of this style use spices/herbs subtly and when
more than one are used, they are carefully selected so that they blend harmoniously. Entrants must specify whether the entry is still or sparkling mead.
Entrants must also specify whether the mead is dry, semi-sweet or sweet.
Vital Statistics: Effective OG: 1.070-1.120+
IBUs: N/A FG: 0.995-1.025
SRM: 1-16 ABV: 7.5-15+%
25G. Braggot
Meads made with both honey and malt providing flavor and fermentable extract. Originally, and alternatively, a mixture of mead and ale.
Aroma: Aroma of both honey and malt should be apparent and in balance. Hop aroma may be present but is not required.
Appearance: Straw to dark brown depending on the type of malt and honey used. Some head retention is expected. Clear, although some chill haze may be
present at low temperatures.
Flavor: There should be some balance between the beer aspect and the mead aspect of a braggot, especially with regard to maltiness and bitterness versus
honey character. Malt character ranges from light pale malt-type flavors to rich caramel flavors, depending on the malt used. Hop bitterness and flavor may
be present but are not required.
Mouthfeel: Body may vary from light to medium. Smooth mouthfeel without astringency. Carbonation may vary from light to very lively.
Comments: The fermentable sugars should come from a balance of malt and honey, otherwise the beverage might better be entered as a Specialty Beer with
the addition of honey. As a rule of thumb, the fermentables should consist of no less than 1/3 malt and no more than 2/3 honey. Hopped examples of this
style should exhibit the hops distinctly and should have at least 15 IBUs.
Vital Statistics Effective OG: 1.060-1.120+
IBUs: 0-50 FG: 1.004-1.025
SRM: 3-16 ABV: 6.5-14%
25H. Mixed Category Mead
A mead that combines ingredients from two or more of the other mead sub-categories.
Aroma, appearance, flavor and other characteristics may vary and be combinations of the respective elements of the various sub-categories used in this style.
Comments: This mead should exhibit the character of all of the ingredients in varying degrees, and should show a good blending or balance between the
various flavor elements.
26. CIDER
26A. Standard Cider and Perry
Aroma: Apples (pears, if a perry) should be distinctive and dominate. There may be some fermentation byproducts such as esters, alcohols and low levels of
sulfur.
Appearance: Pale yellow to amber in color. Clear and brilliant. Carbonation may vary from absolutely still to very vigorous, as follows, Entrant must
specify still or carbonated (level of carbonation optional):
Still: No carbonation visible or in the mouthfeel.
Petillant: Very lightly sparkling, visibly and in the mouth.
Sparkling: Clearly but not heavily carbonated.
Spuming or Spumante: Heavily and vigorously carbonated, bordering on gushing, with tight, fine bubbles, champagne-like.
Flavor: Crisp apple (pear) flavor should be present and distinctive. May be dry to sweet. Some noticeable alcohol character may be present at the upper end of
the range (7%). There should be a balance in the acidic character and the residual sweetness.
Mouthfeel: Light body. No astringency. No carbonic bite from CO2.
Comments: Sugar adjuncts may be used. May be fermented by wine, Champagne, ale, lager or wild yeast. The entrant must also specify whether the entry is a
cider or perry; dry, semi-dry or sweet; still or carbonated. If both apple and pear juice are used the entry must be entered as a special cider. Artificial
carbonation is allowed. The method of carbonation need not be specified.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.045-1.061
IBUs: NA FG: 0.990-1.012
SRM: 3-12 ABV: 4.5-7%
Commercial Examples: Broadoak, Hecks, Dunkertons, Franklins, Richs Framhouse Cider (all available only in England), Clos Normand, Herout Fils,
Hornsbys Draft Cider (not the Granny Smith or Amber), Sidra El Gaitero, Kellys Traditional Irish Premium Hard Cider, Minchew Perry (available only
in England), Wyders Pear Cider.
26B. New England-Style Cider
Aroma: Strong, pronounced apple aroma. The higher level of alcohol,8-14%, will be more noticeable in the aroma. Other fermentation byproducts may also
be present.
Appearance: Pale to medium yellow. Still or sparkling. Carbonation must be natural. Clear and brilliant.
Flavor: Strong apple flavor. Usually dry. No hot alcohol taste. New England-Style cider is distinguished from other styles by its robust and sometimes
unsophisticated taste. It is a rustic, homemade product, typically more forceful than delicate. Nevertheless, complexity and structure are often present.
Mouthfeel: Medium to full-bodied with some tannins.
Comments: Adjuncts may include white and brown sugars, molasses, honey (very sparingly), and/or raisins. Should use wild or wine yeast only. Entrants
must specify whether still or sparkling and whether dry, semi-sweet or sweet.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.061-1.105
IBUs: N/A FG: 0.990-1.010
SRM: 3-5 ABV: 7-14%
Commercial Examples: There are no known commercial examples of New England-style cider.
26C. Specialty Cider And Perry
Aroma: Apples (pears) should be distinctive and dominate. There may be some fermentation byproducts such as esters, alcohols and low levels of sulfur.
Aromas from identified fruits and spices should also be noticeable as well.
Appearance: Carbonation may vary from absolutely still to very vigorous. Pale yellow in color, except where adjuncts such as spices or fruit may introduce a
deeper shade or another color. Clear and brilliant.
Flavor: Crisp apple (pear) flavor should be present and distinctive. Declared adjuncts must be present in the taste and integrate well with the base cider. May
be dry to sweet. Some noticeable alcohol character may be present but the emphasis should be on alcoholic warming, not the taste or harsh bite of alcohol in
the mouth. There should be a balance in the acidic character and the residual sweetness.
Mouthfeel: Light to full body.
Comments: Sugar adjuncts may be used. May be fermented by wine, Champagne, ale, lager or wild yeast. There may be optional ingredients such as fruits
and spices in which case the entrant must identify these. The entrant must also specify whether the entry is; dry, semi-dry or sweet; still or carbonated.
Artificial carbonation is allowed. The method of carbonation need not be specified. The entrant must be careful in the use of honey as an adjunct; if the honey
is the dominant fermentable the entry is a Cyser and must be entered in the Mead competition and not as a cider.
Ingredients: At least 75% apple (pear) juice with the remainder made from any variety of adjuncts. The alcohol content must be below 14%, but any type of
yeast can be used in the production.
Vital Statistics: OG: 1.061-1.105
IBUs: N/A FG: 0.990-1.010
SRM: 3-12 ABV: 7-14%
Commercial Examples: Cider Jack fruit ciders.

 
  
 

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